Scientrific Explanations From Psychologist Essay

682 words - 3 pages

In Hempel’s essay (1962) he defined the different types of scientific explanations. First he explains the rules of deductive-nomological explanation which are based on particular facts or general laws. This type of explanation explains the occurrence of an ‘explanandum event’ by showing that the event resulted from the particular circumstances in accordance with the laws. Probabilistic explanation also accounts for a given phenomenon by reference to general laws or theoretical principles, but these are of probabilistic-statistical form. In my opinion, the majority of the models created by social scientist belong to the probabilistic explanations. Nowadays, psychologist are creating probabilistic models of the psychiatric disorders, e.g. depression can be explained in view of certain particular events and certain statistical laws. I found Hempel’s essay helpful in understanding current endeavors to create models in the state-of-art of science.

Klahr and Simon (1999) summarized the different types of approaches to study scientific discoveries. There are five categorizes to investigate science: historical accounts, laboratory studies, observations of ongoing discovery, computational or simulational models and sociological studies. I agree with the authors when they emphasize that the findings from these diverse approaches should be considered in combination in order to advance our understanding. On the other hand, there are some extraordinary examples known thanks to the historical accounts approach when some solutions have been invented in dreams (e.g. Otto Loewi idea about the chemical transmission, Elias Howe dream about the sewing machine just to mention couple of them). How can we study this kind of experience? Can we understand it at some point?
Klahr and Simon (1999) wrote about the importance of unexpected and unpredictable findings. Sometimes an observed phenomena appears to be totally different than our original hypotheses based on the previous scientific literature. The authors claim that an important aspect of the development of science is the acceptance of these surprises. From my point of view, we can...

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