10 Perspectives Of Early Psychology Essay

850 words - 3 pages

As described, there are 10 different perspectives of early psychology. These perspectives are: Structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, Behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, evolutionary, cognitive, and cultural and diversity. Here is a summary of each.Structuralism is "the earliest approach in modern psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt; its goal was to evaluate the basic elements of a cognizant experience: (Davis and Palladino, 2000). Wilhelm had a student whose name was Edward Tichener. Upon his research, Tichener depended upon a method that he liked to call introspection, "in which participants gave verbal reports of their conscious experiences" (Davis and Palladino, 2000).In the late 1800's the United States became the founders of a new perspective known as functionalism. "It was an approach to psychology that focused on the purpose of consciousness" (Davis and Palladino, 2000). The basic consensus was how the mind went about what it did and why. "Because consciousness was like a continually flowing stream, it could not be easily broken down into its elements as Wundt had hoped. According to James, if it were broken down into elements, it would lose its reality" (Davis and Palladino, 2000).Members whom believed in Gestalt Psychology were: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler. These gentlemen believed "that our perception of a whole is different from our perception of an individual stimuli" (Davis and Palladino, 2000). This psychology is founded on the principals known as "apparent motion, in which a rapid sequence of stationary images creates the illusion of movement, as in a movie" (Rock & Palmer, 1990). The name Gestalt is an actual German word which could translate into shape, or pattern in English.The behavioral perspective "focuses on the observable behavior and emphasis the learned nature of behavior" (Davis and Palladino, 2000).Unlike the other approaches, the behavioral perspective accentuates how it is important to learn and understand and doesn't focus on coconscious. B. F. Skinner, a well known psychologist, was a strong advocate to this thinking. He has since been called the "greatest contemporary psychologist" (Fowler, 1990). Skinner basically took an easy angle on his methods. "Behavior changes as a result of consequences (Bjork, D. W., 1997). When it comes down to it, Skinner teaches basic skills.The psychodynamic perspective is "based on the belief that the unconscious mind exerts greater control over behavior and that the early childhood experiences are a major influence on personal development" (Davis and Palladino, 2000).The major innovator of this thinking is Sigmund Freud. He said if you want to get an understanding on someone's persona, you have to look at childhood experiences....

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