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2.1 Analyse The Influence Of Theories, Principles And Models Of Curriculum Design On Inclusive Learning And Teaching

1602 words - 7 pages

Different theories present own opinion of the most effective way through curriculum models. ‘Curriculum models are approaches or procedures for implementing a curriculum’. (Wilson, 2009: 522) Commonly curriculum are described as product, process and praxis. While curriculum as a product depends on the objectives as the learning goals and the measured means, a process model focuses on learning and relationship between learner and teacher. Chosen curriculum model depends on teaching and assessment strategies in some cases determinate by awarding bodies, organisational constrains, funding body and political initiatives. The dominant modes of describing and managing education are today couched ...view middle of the document...

This way of thinking about curriculum theory and practice was advocated by Ralph W. Tyler (1949) one of the pioneer of curriculum engineering and techniques. Like Bobbitt he also placed an emphasis on the formulation of behavioural objectives. His theory was based on four fundamental questions: What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Tyler questions formulate four major stages in the process of curriculum development: goals and objectives, content, learning experiences and evaluation. This approach can be found in many training programmes, where particular tasks or jobs have been analysed – broken down into their component elements – and lists of competencies drawn up. These ordered procedure is very similar to the technical or productive thinking with systematic and organizing consideration: Diagnosis of need, Formulation of objectives, Selection of content, Organization of content, Selection of learning experiences, Organization of learning experiences, Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it. Central to the approach is the formulation of behavioural objectives – providing a clear notion of outcome so that content and method may be organized and the results evaluated. However, here is limited opportunity to use interactions and behaviour can be objectively, mechanistically measured. Also long list of skills or competencies can lead to a focus on the parts rather than the whole curriculum and is not grounded in the study of educational exchanges. While Tyler’s model suggested that evaluation serves purely to ascertain the extent to which the objectives stated had been achieved, critics argued that evaluation need not be a terminal stage, but should take place at every stage. For this Wheeler has converted Tyler’s original ideas into cyclic form. (Taba 1962).

In 1976 Davies precise by identifying two types of verbs for defining outcomes. Those which are very broad, not easily measured, and open to interpretation such as: to know, to understand, to appreciate, to believe and those that are clear in their meaning and preferable to use: to write, to identify, to solve, to construct, to list etc. (Wilson, 2009). All aspect of topic – the content and its wider effect – is concerned by a process model grounded within humanist values. Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) produced one of the best-known explorations of a process model of curriculum theory and practice. He suggests that a curriculum should be grounded in practice: ‘A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice’(Stenhouse, 1975: 4-5). This approach enabling educators to...

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