This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

A Closer Look At Pain Essay

1183 words - 5 pages

PAGE [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
A Closer Look at Pain: ProstaglandinsMost health conditions involve some form of pain, whether it is a toothache or maybe it is as serious as something like cancer. Nevertheless, the sensible thing to do is to depict the cause behind this feeling of pain and find a solution to alleviate it. For centuries, natural remedies have been proven to alleviate pain such as white willow bark (Salix alba) and myrtle (Myrtus communis). However, in 1991, the revolutionary discovery of hormone-like compounds called "prostaglandins," was found to be the cause of inflammation. Prostaglandins are a family of chemicals that promote inflammation, pain, fever, etc.; support blood clotting of blood platelets; and protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of acid (Ogbru).W. L.Xie and his colleagues, students of the Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, discovered the enzyme in which the body produces prostaglandins: cyclooxygenase. The students found two different isoforms of cyclooxygenase: cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Although these enzymes may sound similar, they have two different effects on the body. COX-1 is a constant, physiological, housekeeper-like enzyme, which is produced throughout the body. It is part of the body's essential day-to-day cellular and metabolic activities. This includes maintaining the strength and integrity of the stomach lining, regulating blood flow, and balancing platelet function. On the other hand, COX-2 was discovered to be the inducible form of the enzyme, which expresses proinflammatory molecules within parts of the body including the brain, reproductive organs of both genders, the kidneys, and also within osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Unlike COX-1, COX-2's expression is usually kept at a minimum; however, when activated, it regulates the prostaglandin production specifically within the cells that are already inflamed. In result of this massive discovery, pharmaceuticals commonly known as "nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs" (NSAIDs) were manufactured and used to treat the pain caused by prostaglandins (Almada, 2000).NSAIDs are a class of drugs that reduce inflammation of the body. Steroids can also do the same; however, NSAIDs are different. Individuals all over the world, use NSAIDs to reduce pain, fever, and swelling. They are commonly prescribed by doctors and can even be found over-the-counter to treat almost any kind of pain, more specifically pain caused by arthritis, tendinitis, and bursitis. Common examples of NSAIDs include: aspirin, indomethacin (Indocin), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn), Piroxicam (Feldene), and nabumetone (Relafen) (Ogbru O. P.). Although NSAIDs sound like a great remedy, they do not completely fulfill their mission. NSAIDs seem to work because they block the production of prostaglandins; however, by doing so, they inhibit the production of COX-1 while blocking out COX-2. This is essentially...

Find Another Essay On A Closer Look at Pain

A Closer Look at Hannah Dustan’s Affair

1396 words - 6 pages A Closer Look at Hannah Dustan’s Affair Throughout literature, there have been many tales told about strong, brave heroes and mighty, wily savages and beasts. However, one story that still speaks to students today is that of a heroine by the name of Hannah Dustan, who killed ten Indians with the assistance of her two fellow captives. Together, they escaped capture, and Hannah Dustan told her tale again and again to individuals she encountered

A Closer Look at Lupus Erythematosus

1336 words - 6 pages compared to healthy people (Somers 2014). How is Lupus diagnosed? There is no one test that can confirm a diagnosis of lupus. Doctors will use tests as the antinuclear antibody (ANA) test, examine blood count, do a liver and kidney assessment, and even look at proteins in the urine to confirm a diagnosis. Drug treatments Some of the treatments that are used to manage lupus are antimalarials, that can reduce flaring, immunosuppressive drugs to

Taking a Closer Look at Leukemia

1197 words - 5 pages infections. If leukemia spreads to the lymph nodes or other organs, it could cause swelling and pain. (“Leukemia Cells”) Special tests can help identify the abnormal cells. (“Diagnosing”) Leukemia was uncovered by a German biologist Rudolf Virchow in 1845. Virchow first referred to leukemia as Weisses Blut, german for white blood. A couple of years later, he suggested leukemia as the new name. Leukemia came from two Greek words that refers to

A Closer Look at Same Sex Relationships

1301 words - 6 pages moment, fathering a surrogate baby chick together at the Jerusalem Zoo, in Israel. 3.) The point of this is to show that homosexuality is a natural occurrence. There is a estimated 1500 different kinds of species that practice same sex interactions within in nature. TRANSITION- This isn’t the only stereotypical error society has made III. The last argument that I am going to discuss is the commonly perceived idea that same sex relationships are

A Closer Look at Human Cloning

1422 words - 6 pages Cloning could be the answer to the pain and suffering of many people around the globe. Human cloning is the asexual reproduction or replication of a human being at any stage of development. It can also be defined as the formation of an identical genetic copy of a human being. Cloning itself is not new as it dates back to the 1970s where frogs and toads were experimented on. It is primarily divided into two types namely therapeutic cloning and

Taking a Closer Look at Michael Jordan

1082 words - 5 pages charities. Michael Jordan changed the way people look at and play basketball in many ways, such as his super athletic ability made people want to watch him, and he made basketball way more popular. Work Cited "Michael Jordan Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014 "NBA.com: Michael Jordan Bio." NBA.com: Michael Jordan Bio. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014. Google word search michael jordan "World Biography." Michael

A Closer Look at John Dillinger

2390 words - 10 pages thanks to having a very good lawyer while John did not get off as easy. Being his only offense a lawyer told him to just plead guilty and the judge will take it easy on him, but that is not what happened at all. John Dillinger went to court without a lawyer thinking it would go smoothly but instead the court sentenced for ten to twenty years in prison for a fifty dollar theft(“Bio.com”). His wife divorced him which lead to him trying to escape with

Jeffrey Dahmer: A Closer Look at a Murderer

1741 words - 7 pages Jeffrey Dahmer: A Closer Look Jeffrey Dahmer was responsible for a series of horrific murders of seventeen young men from 1988 until he was caught on July 22, 1991, in Milwaukee. This single individual grabbed the attention of the entire nation and brought to light the idea that no one in society should be trusted. Dahmer presented himself to be a normal yet quiet man, by leading a discreet and unnoticeable life. But the horrendous details of

A Closer Look at Like a Winding Sheet

924 words - 4 pages and wife. Mae is giggly and attentive, teasing her husband for sleeping so late. Then it happens. Mae observes Johnson’s position saying, “You look like a huckleberry…in a winding sheet…” (Norton 1498). The winding sheet is simple and innocence at first but the symbolism behind it means much more. It’s not necessarily the fact that it was a sheet, but that it resembles a shroud used to dress the dead- a foreshadowing for her death. Another

Closer look at Death Row

1802 words - 7 pages . Alone with nothing to do but think about the unavoidable fate that rests ahead of them. Here they have the last meal of their choice, which I’m sure goes great with the feeling of knowing that it is the last meal of your life. They have their final phone call, and are then led down the hall to the death chamber. When in the death chamber there is no turning back. The only thing that can save an inmate at this point is a telephone pardon. So

Case Study: Closer Look at a Medication Regimen

3539 words - 14 pages Case Study: Closer Look at a Medication RegimenBackgroundHistoryNB is a 40 year old, 5 foot 7 inch, 148 lbs (67kg) African American female admitted through the emergency department (ED) with loss of consciousness, possibly related to a drug overdose. Subsequently, she was transferred to the medical/surgical floor with a medical diagnosis of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis due to immobility and cocaine. Her histories were ascertained from her

Similar Essays

A Closer Look At Character Essay

1176 words - 5 pages English 102A Closer Look at CharacterIn any literay work, it is absolutely essential to have characters, whether major or minor. It is also necessary to develop these characters through out the story. Character development gives the reader insight to the more important meanings or lessons of the story. These lessons are usually brought out by the events that take place within the story. Looking at Guy De Maupassant's piece "The Necklace", we see

A Closer Look At Mimas Essay

1522 words - 6 pages scientists have researched. Mimas shape is not quite big enough to hold a round shape. Mimas is known to be the smallest known astronomical body that is thought to be rounded in shape due to the result of its self-gravitation. Mimas orbits at a range of 115,280 miles from Saturn in a time frame of 22 hours 37 minutes. Mimas’ orbit makes it the closest major moon of all moons of Saturn. Mimas is known to be tidally locked to Saturn and has one side

A Closer Look At American Suburbia

1326 words - 5 pages Toni Troell Film Appreciation Cherie King March 20, 2002 A Closer Look at American Suburbia In American Beauty (1999), which was directed by Sam Mendes, we are confronted with the images that have consumed mainstream American life. Mendes exploits these images that we, as Americans, have created around ourselves as a means of hiding our true nature. In American Beauty, Mendes plays on the natural tendencies of the viewers to seek

A Closer Look At Girl´S Life

2227 words - 9 pages . Another reason being a girl is awful has to deal with insecurity. When a girl sees another girl who is dressed better, looks better, or has more money, they instantly feel insecure about themselves. Right at that moment they begin asking themselves questions like, “Why am I so ugly?”, and “I wish I could look as great as her”. Feeding the body with insults like this can make the girl want to leave where she is at that moment. For a while she will no