1810 American settlers in East and West Florida declare independence and rebel against Spain for control of land.
April 28, 1823 With newly acquired land the United States has become to within 90 miles of Cuba. Secretary of State John Quincy Adam sends a letter to Minister to Spain Hugh Nelson speculating the likelihood of U.S. “annexation of Cuba” within half a century in spite of deterrents:
“But there are laws of political as well as of physical gravitation; and if an apple severed by the tempest from its native tree cannot choose but fall to the ground, Cuba, forcibly disjoined from its own unnatural connection with Spain, and incapable of self-support, can gravitate only towards the North American Union, which by the same law of nature cannot cast her off from its bosom.”
- Cubans’ dub Adam’s policy la fruta madura (ripe fruit); Washington is waiting until the fruit is ripe for the picking.
On this day 191 years ago John Quincy Adams expressed his prediction for the future of Cuban-American contact. The Cuban wars of independence were only 15 years away from his prediction when he estimated. These independence wars continue to influence Cuba’s cultural and political attitude toward Europe and the United States; This in part due to the externalities involved in the remodeling of social structure in the aftermath of the revolution. The intentions and motives of each faction: rebels, United States government, Spanish government, United States public, and the Cuban public, varied widely to an extend that caused even more concern in the future. Depending on the point of view of an outsider the situation in Cuba seemed to be a continuation of revolutionary efforts to completely liberate the country from their colonial rulers after a thirty year struggle. For most of the 19th century Spain had gone through multiple regime changes caused by the Napoleonic Wars which left the country disorganized and unable to effectively rule their colonial possessions in South America. With the dissolution of the Central Junta of Seville in Spain after the French invasion, many more local juntas formed in the colonies in an effort to maintain public order after the fall of the Spanish king in 1808. An era of revolution came upon the people in South America and by 1830 Spain’s colonies in South America consisted solely of Cuba and Puerto Rico, although their geographical location had very significant value. The movement for independence restarted in 1895 when Cuban patriots José Martí and Máximo Gómez called for "Independencia o muerte" (Independence or death), and gaining strong support among nationalist and American thinkers. Prime Minister Cánavos del Castillo, assumed leader of Spain, emphasized the significance of a close Spanish-Cuban relationship barring foreign association, quoted saying "the Spanish nation is disposed to sacrifice to the last peseta of its treasure and to the...