Jainism began in 6th century B.C in India. The religion comes from the Jinas or conquerors in English, and this name was given to twenty-four great teachers through whom their faith was revealed. Tirthankaras or ford makers, was the name given to the twenty-four teachers. Mahavira, the last of the Tirthankaras, is the founder of Jainism. The main goal of this religion is gained by the consequences of doing bad things or karma. Once you have overcome bodily passions then a person is called a conqueror in the eyes of the Jains.
Jainism consists of a multi-layered universe containing both heaven and hells. To go to heaven it requires you to obey the Jain laws. These are the laws of the Jains: ...view middle of the document...
Another is that space overcomes everything and has absolutely no form. All things live in space which is divided into the space of the universe and the space of the non-universe. They believe there are three regions that split everything up. The central region which has all living things, is where devils and gods live, and the upper region, which is split into two parts and the lower region, which is split into seven. There is not much to be known about the upper and lower regions. All this led to the Jain work, Tiloyapannatti by Yativrsabha. A circle is divided by parallel lines into regions of prescribed widths. The lengths of the boundary chords and the area of the regions are given based on stated rules.
Cosmology has had a strong influence on the Jain mathematics in many ways and has motivated the development of new mathematical ideas of the infinite. The Jains have an estimated number of years that the universe has been around. It is a extremely large number. They work with very large numbers and are fascinated by infinites.
The jain construction begins with a cylindrical container of very large radius r(taken to be the radius of the Earth) and having a fixed hieght h. The number n=f(r) is the number of the very tiny mustard seed that can be placed in this container. Next, r=g(r) is defined by a complicated recursive sub procedure, and then as before a new larger number n=f(r) is defined.
“Still the highest enumerable number ahs not been attained.” –Dwara Sutra says
This whole procedure is done again, at the end it holds a rather large number which is called jaghanya- parita- asamkhyata which means ‘innumerable of low enhanced order.” Continuing the process yields the smallest innumerable number. The Jains recognized five different types of infinity-
“…infinite in one direction, infinite in two directions, infinite in two directions,...