1. Students will display inappropriate behaviors for many different reasons. In this case study, we are only given a snap shot of the behaviors, as well as, probable functions of the behavior. Sven engages in maladaptive behavior when he is expected to be attending to tasks. There could be several reasons for his maladaptive behaviors, including, but not limited to sensory disorder, feeling of not being in control of tasks, task demand too high or attention seeking. Regardless, it seems as though Sven wanted to escape or avoid the behavior, completing the assignment. The behavior principal that Sven’s case illustrates is antecedent control, or changing the task or environment in order to produce desired behavior (Alberto & Troutman, 2013). The observer noticed that Sven reacted negatively when presented with assignments or tasks; therefore, changing the antecedent from giving Sven a specific assignment or task, to letting him choose between eight task options that would yield the same instructional objective, which decreased his maladaptive behaviors and increasing acceptable behaviors (engaging in academic tasks).
2. Sven’s teacher and most likely, related service providers focused on what would be best for his learning, rather than fitting into the class set curriculum as a whole. They looked at what would best fit his learning needs and would hold his interests, such as giving him choices. Some teachers would demand that he follow the same rules as the other students, which would in turn cause Sven to not form a trusting bond with teachers. They took his personal interests into consideration while maintaining curriculum objectives. This is reinforcing Sven’s appropriate behaviors. For example, if the original assignment was to write a paragraph using at least 10 adjectives to describe a futuristic car, but the learning objectives are based on learning and demonstrating knowledge of adjectives, then it would be okay that Sven’s teachers allowed him to choose a topic of interest.
3. Factors that influence behavior may be external or internal. External factors may include (not limited to) inconsistent expectations, expectations that are too high or low, loss of loved one, victim or witness of abuse (verbal or physical), over stimulating environment, lack of organization in the environment, unexpected changes in routines, unmet emotional needs, poverty and neglect. Internal factors may include (not limited to) poor nutrition, speech and language difficulties, developmental delays, neurological challenges, fatigue, hunger, illness, and temperament. “Learning occurs as a result of the consequences of behavior” (Alberto & Troutman, 2013). According to the behavioral approach, there are behavior principles that influence behavior, such as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction, antecedent control, modeling and shaping.
Positive reinforcement occurs when a consequence increases the likelihood of the behavior...