A Comparison of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
There are two main types of cells in the world. The simplest cells such as bacteria are known as Prokaryotic cells, and human cells are known as Eukaryotic cells. The main difference between each of these cells is that a eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and a membrane bound section in which the cell holds the main DNA which are building blocks of life.
Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. The chromosomes which are found in prokaryotes are usually spread in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic cells the chromosomes remain together inside the nucleus and there is a clear nuclear membrane that is surrounding the nucleus.
Another difference between the two cells is that, in prokaryotic cells there is cytoplasmic movement; however there is no cytoplasmic movement in eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cell: have no membrane covered organelles, they also have circular DNA and bacteria, Eukaryotic cell: have membrane covered organelles, they also have linear DNA and all other cells. Also the cell cycle is short in prokaryotic cells, roughly taking about 20-26 minutes to complete. And in eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle is long, it usually takes about 12-24 hours to complete. Below is a table of some of the differences between the cells:
The nucleus is often the largest organelle found in a Eukaryotic cell with a size of 10-20 un. It is surrounded by two membrane layers which can be identified on the diagram below. Within the nucleus structure are small pores with a size of 100un in diameter. These pores together make up around one third of the nuclear membrane surface area.
The nucleus contains genetic material that controls all the activities within a cell. A nucleus is made up of DNA, protein, and a nuclear membrane. The nucleus is the most important part of a cell; it contains chromatin material made up of DNA. A nucleus is a membrane which can be found in most eukaryotic cells.
The main functions of a nucleus cell are:
• Being involved in cell division
• All the functions of other cells are done under the instruction of the nucleus
• DNA is the building blocks of life which are found within the nucleus.
The main function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum is to produce, store and transport proteins and lipid to most of the cell organelles. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a large organelle that looks like sheets of folded membranes.
There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum the Smooth ER and the Rough ER. you can distinguish that both of the ER’s are different to each other, this is shown in the diagram above that one is smooth ER and the other is rough ER the rough ER has ribsomes attracted to it while the smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to it. The two ER’s have different function to each other.
Structure of Endoplasmic reticulum:
- Sheets of membrane with ribosomes outside (for rough ER).
- Forms a tubular network throughout the cell.