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A Era Da Informação Castells Information Era Manuel Castells

8954 words - 36 pages


CASTELLS, Manuel. A Era da Informação: economia, sociedade e cultura, vol. 3, São Paulo: Paz e terra, 1999, p. 411-439


Esta é a conclusão geral de um livro em três volumes. A Era da Informação: Economia, Sociedade e Cultura. Tentei evitar repetições. Sobre a definição dos conceitos teóricos empregados nesta conclusão (por exemplo, informacionalismo ou relações de produção), favor consultar o Prólogo do livro no volume I. Vide também a conclusão do volume I para uma abordagem do conceito de sociedade em rede e a conclusão do volume II para uma análise das relações entre identidade cultural, movimentos sociais e política.

Um novo mundo está tomando forma neste fim de milênio. Originou-se mais ou menos no fim dos anos 60 e meados da década de 70 na coincidência histórica de três processos independentes: revolução da tecnologia da informação; crise econômica do capitalismo e do estatismo e a conseqüente reestruturação de ambos; e apogeu de movimentos sociais e culturais, tais como libertarismo, direitos humanos, feminismo e ambientalismo. A interação entre esses processo e as reações por eles desencadeadas fizeram surgir uma nova estrutura social dominante, a sociedade em rede; uma nova economia, a economia informacional/global; e uma nova cultura, a cultura da virtualidade real. A lógica inserida nessa economia, nessa sociedade e nessa cultura está subjacente à ação e às instituições sociais em um mundo interdependente.

Algumas características cruciais deste novo mundo foram identificadas na análise apresentada nos três volumes deste livro. A revolução da tecnologia da informação motivou o surgimento do informacionalismo como a base material de uma nova sociedade. No informacionalismo, a geração de riqueza, o exercício do poder e a criação de códigos culturais passaram a depender da capacidade tecnológica das sociedades e dos indivíduos, sendo a tecnologia da informação o elemento principal dessa capacidade. A tecnologia da informação tornou-se ferramenta indispensável para a implantação efetiva dos processos de reestruturação socioeconômica. De especial importância, foi seu papel ao possibilitar a formação de redes como modo dinâmico e auto-expansível de organização da atividade humana. Essa lógica preponderante de redes transforma todos os domínios da vida social e econômica.

A crise dos modelos de desenvolvimento econômico tanto do capitalismo como do estatismo motivaram sua reestruturação paralela a partir de meados dos anos 70. nas economias capitalistas, empresas e governos estabeleceram várias medidas e políticas que, em conjunto, levaram a uma nova forma de capitalismo. Suas características são a globalização das principais atividades econômicas, flexibilidade organizacional e maior poder para o patronato em suas relações com os trabalhadores. Pressões competitivas, flexibilidade de trabalho e enfraquecimento de mão-de-obra sindicalizada levaram à redução de...

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