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A Human Transporter Protein That Mediates The Final Excretion Step For Toxic Organic Cations

1559 words - 6 pages

Introduction

The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries. Transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport.

The method of excretion of toxic organic compounds in mammals is mainly through the kidney and liver. Toxic organic compounds are absorbed by the basolateral membranes and later excreted by brush border membranes that absorb nutrients from the small intestine. These toxic organic compounds are also absorbed by hepatocytes at the sinusoidal membranes and excreted through the bile canaliculi. The objective of this research is to identify the transporter involved with the final step of excretion of toxic organic chemicals. Based on biochemical and physiological studies of the organic compound exporter, the tentative hypothesis proposed is that mammalian orthologues of bacterial multidrug are involved with the excretion of organic compounds. These multidrug transporters include the ?major facilitator superfamily, the small multidrug resistance family, the resistance nodulation cell division family, the ATP binding cassette family, and the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) family (8?10)?. The MATE family proteins facilitate the coupled export between hydrogen and sodium ions of cationic drugs in bacteria. In this experiment, MATE1 is revealed as the transporter involved with the final excretion of organic compounds in the kidney and liver.

Background

All living organisms produce metabolic waste products and are exposed to many environmental toxins. Many of these environmental toxins are present in the form of organic cations(OC) found in the ingredients of many prescription drugs. In order to rid themselves of these waste products and toxins, they must be excreted primarily through the kidney and liver. Thus, in order to understand the research presented in this paper, one must have a thorough understanding of the way the kidney works.

The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries> transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport.

Previous studies have shown that there is a specific transporter that is responsible for the final step in the excretion process. However, these...

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