The operating system provides the graphical user interface simplifies the use of computers for users. Operating systems can be divided into few major types that are Single User OS, Multiple User OS, Real Time OS and Embedded OS. A Single User operating system provides access to the computer system for a single user at an instant. Single user operating system provides access to one user but support multitasking. A Multiple User OS allows more than one user to access the computer system at an instant. A real time operating system is a multitasking operating system that provides real time execution applications with instant accurate results. Embedded operating system is designed to ...view middle of the document...
The operators would load one stack of cards at a time in sequence into the machine. Then Job Control Language allowed the programmer to declare job information as part of their stack of cards, and run a program called a monitor that read in the stack and stored it on an input tape. The input tape then be run on a separate computer and spool its output to the output tape which would be mounted on the printer to output the response to the program.
By 1965 the first operating system was invented, the Fortran Monitoring System that can load three types of programs, the Fortran Program, the Compiler, and the Machine language program. A tape containing the operating system is loaded first in order to start the operating system. Start-up of a computer was a long and involved process because the operating systems did not have the bootstrap mechanism. Computer companies have to support two completely different types of computers, 1401 like character based computers, and word-oriented 7094 like scientific computers. Maintenance and training on these completely different systems was problematic so IBM invented System/360 was created. The IBM 360 was the first computer line to use small scale integrated circuits and offered a major cut in price.
The multi-computing was popular, where instead of waiting for a single job, the computer could be running multiple jobs simultaneously. This eliminated waiting since the computer could process different programs at the same time. The only problem was that the size of the jobs involved required different strategies. One way of solving this problem was partition the memory, so each job has its own partition so more than one job could run at the same time on the same computer without interfering with the memory of other jobs. The idea of running the card reader from one partition, the number crunching in another, and the output to the printer from a third from multi-computing concept, eliminating the satellite 1401 type computers, and reducing the wear and tear on tapes from mounting stress.
In the third generation, timesharing become popular to protect the hardware mechanism. MULTICS was invented as the fourth generation of operating system based on the small scale integration, and the development of LSI and then VLSI (Very large scale Integration) that eventually replaced whole rooms of computers with a small desktop unit.
UNIX was designed by Ken Thompson in 1970 as a one user version of MULTICS based on a PDP-7 Minicomputer. It was used extensively by universities and small businesses.
Most operating systems today have gained by the work of the Open Software Movement because their internet software's sophistication depends on ideas and spread through free software. (September 30, 2013 , )
CURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Evolving of operating system
Microsoft Windows 
Year Events And Description
1975 Microsoft first discovered through the...