A Novel Technique Of Securing Images Using Chaos And Ezw

1950 words - 8 pages

II. CHAOS AND EZW
A. CHAOS BASED SCRAMBLING ALGORITHM:
“Chaos” means “state of disorder”, in mathematics for a system to be called as chaotic system; it should satisfy the following conditions [6],
1. It should be highly sensitive to initial condition.
2. It should satisfy the mixing property.
3. Periodic orbits should be dense.
A chaotic map is a function which exhibits chaotic behavior; there are different types of chaotic maps (like 1-D maps, 2-D maps, discrete-time parameter, continuous-time parameter etc.). In this paper we are considering chaotic logistic map (1-D) which is simple to implement.
Chaotic logistic map is given by equation (1),

Xj+1 =u*Xj*(1-Xj), u [1, 4] & X (0, 1) (1)

Where, u is the bifurcation parameter, if u [3.57, 4] then the equation behaves chaotically, here we are taking ‘u’ value as 4.X0 is the initial value which can be taken randomly from (0, 1).
The Scrambling algorithm used in this paper reorders the rows and columns of the 2-D data. For scrambling rows and columns we are using two different keys.
Scrambling algorithm:
The chaotic logistic map produces chaotic sequence within the range (0, 1). A position vector ‘P’ is generated, which signifies the new positions of the row or column of a given 2-D data.
P = [ Pi, Pi+1… PN ] (2)
Where,
Pi are the position elements.
The position vector is generated based on mixing property of chaotic dynamical systems. The mixing property is given as [7]:
“For any two open intervals I and J (which can be arbitrarily small, but must have a nonzero length) one can find initial values in I which when iterated will eventually lead to points in J”.
Hence mixing property states that any initial condition at any interval can traverse intervals in the entire domain (0,1) during course of iterations. To generate the position vector [8], the domain (0, 1) is equally subdivided into small intervals and each interval numbered from 1 to N depending on length of row or column keeping other fixed.
Now to generate a new position vector a key is taken and applied to the chaotic logistic map we will obtain a value (0, 1) based on the initial condition. Now fill the first element of the position vector with the number given to the subdomain to which the obtained value belongs. Repeat this process until all the position elements are filled. If we are getting an element in position vector which is already there discard that element and iterate the logistic map using the present obtained value until a new element is obtained. Using the position vector ‘P’ as in (2) we scramble the rows of the given 2-D data. Similarly by using a new key we repeat the above scrambling process on the obtained row scrambled 2-D data for column scrambling.
In the descrambling process we will generate position vectors for column and row descrambling as said above using the same keys that are used for scrambling process. Using the generated position vector we can easily descramble the received scrambled...

Find Another Essay On A Novel Technique of Securing Images using Chaos and EZW

Deskewing Using Binary and Grayscale Images

2088 words - 8 pages Megapixels. 1.8 Discussion From the previous table it is found that, except the method using the KHT, all the proposed methods give high accuracy up to 25 degrees. However, from the different methods the most interesting in term of accuracy and compu- tational time are the second method using binary and grayscale images (1.6.3) and the method using only a grayscale image (1.6.2). Unfortunately, the first method requires to binarize the input

Brunelleschi and The Romans: A Comparison of Technique

1041 words - 4 pages seeing as he was very interested in mathematics early in his career. This technique gave a sense of unity and thereby serenity in a building. Even by looking only at the front of the Pazzi Chapel, one can see that there is symmetry present in the spacing and design. Romans also had a fascination with geometry and fixed proportions. The Pantheon is a great example of this because the “interior presents a breathtaking view of a huge volume based

A Novel Neuro-fuzzy Classification Technique for Soil Data Mining

1070 words - 5 pages as Neuro-fuzzy [14], [15] based technique. Neuro-fuzzy hybridization leads to a crossbreed intelligent system widely known as Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS) that exploits these two techniques. It combines the human alike logical reasoning of fuzzy based systems with the learning and connectedness structure of ANNs by means of the fuzzy sets and linguistic model based approaches. In our work, we proposed a novel Neuro-fuzzy based classification method

VLSI Implementation of Area Optimized ALU using GDI Technique

2103 words - 9 pages , adder, subtractor etc. using conventional complementary design. Section (IV) present the GDI technique. Section (V) present the simulation results and performance analysis of various ALU blocks with complementary and GDI technique and comparison of their performance & optimized area. Finally the work is concluded in Section (VI) II. ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT 2.1 Arithmetic Unit Employing fast and efficient adders in arithmetic logic unit will aid in

The Chaos and Division of Asia's History

1514 words - 7 pages The assigned readings about Asian history lead a unified conclusion that the past (history) of Asia was characterized with chaos and internal divisions. “China, once again entered an era of divisiveness and chaos. Competing warlords dominated China for the next 350 years” (The Golden Age of China: 79). China is a perfect symbol of Asia’s history because if studied from the past, the history of China demonstrates how divisions took place in the

The Effectiveness Of Using Graphic Novel

2734 words - 11 pages of graphic novels will affect student‘s literacy. People are doubting whether this approach will provide a positive impact on students' reading, writing and thinking skills. Therefore, it is significant to study the effectiveness of using graphic novels on student‘s literacy and highlight on how graphic novel can help in reinforcing students engagement as it supplements high vocabulary and complex language structures with visual reinforcement

A Novel Broadly Beam-Steerable Parasitic Patch Array Antenna with Ground Plane Reduction Technique

1307 words - 6 pages intergration of an additional parasitic elements with a novel approach of ground plane reduction that eventually improved approximately 43% steering angle. Five measured directive beam patterns of -50°, -30°, 0°, +30°, +50° are succesfully obtained with the respective switching conditions. Introduction: Reconfigurable beam steering with patch antenna has gained significant interest due to its compact, simple and low cost design [1,2]. Various techniques

Fitzgerald's Suspenseful Technique of Delaying the Introduction of Gatsby in His Novel, The Great Gatsby

1348 words - 5 pages many different information and gain knowledge from second hand sources which are the people surrounding Gatsby and thus, create a ‘Gatsby’ of our own until we meet him. Fitzgerald gives off bits of information here and there using little description of Gatsby’s action and movement, rumors, Gatsby’s appearance and habits, party scenes and his wealth to establish a mystery around Gatsby and continues to do so in order to prolong the enigma and

The Influence of Fear and Chaos on Innate Evil

964 words - 4 pages The origin of an individual's sense of cruelty is a topic that is highly debatable. Though some feel that it is learned during one's childhood, others disagree and instead believe that everyone is born possessing this negative attribute, though it does not reveal itself unless the subject is in an extreme situation that promotes this attribute. William Golding, a British author recognized by his world-renowned novel, Lord of the Flies, thought

FISH Technique: A Powerful Technique for the in Situ Detection of Organisms in Environmental Samples

578 words - 3 pages probes, and low ribosome contents. Autofluorescence of fungi can also lead to fals epositive fluorescence signals. It is, therefore, important to check for autofluorescence of both target and non-target organisms before selecting the fluorochrome for probe labelling. However, the pin-hole technique of a laser scanning microscope is helpful in reducing background emissions compared to conventional epifluorescence. Low or no permeability of fungal

Using Chapter thirty-three of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, as a starting point, discuss how important the relationship between Jane and Bingley is to the novel as a whole

1076 words - 4 pages compare relationships such as Jane and Bingley with Darcy and Elizabeth, this is because Jane and Bingley act as a foil to the other relationship, also the Gardiners have a very equal marriage and both have equal respect for each other.In the novel the subplot, Jane and Bingley getting together and then married, drives the plot on and therefore at the end of the novel we have two marriages.Austen has created this subplot which shows us the ideal partnership, she has brought together two honest people in a marriage and then using the main plot she has created another very well suited marriage, which means the novels ending is a happy one.

Similar Essays

Digital Implant Scaling Technique In Medical Images Using Pixel Density Algorythm

1884 words - 8 pages ). Preparation of a computerized planning allows surgeons to select implant from the database and match it digitally. By using computer and digital medical images, the implant scaling can be done automatically and also -save time (Arora, 2004). However, in a scientific research by Siti Fairuz (2009) entitled "Knee Joint Replacement Template Automation”, there are still problems in digital implant scaling even aided by the use of computers. When the

A Novel Neuro Fuzzy Classification Technique Essay

1002 words - 5 pages that we could get the best of the both worlds. Neuro-fuzzy hybridization leads to a crossbreed intelligent system widely known as Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS) [12], [13], [14] that exploits these two approaches. The hybrid system unites the human alike logical reasoning of fuzzy systems with the learning and connectedness structure of NNs by means of fuzzy set theory approach. In our study, we proposed a novel Neuro-fuzzy technique for classification

Chaos And Macbeth. A Tale Of Two Theories

718 words - 3 pages A Tale of Two TheoriesMacbeth(c.1607), written by William Shakespeare, is the tragic tale of Macbeth, a virtuous man, corrupted by power and greed. This tagedy could in fact be called 'A Tale of Two Theories'. One theory suggests that the tragic hero, Macbeth, is led down an unescapable road of doom by an outside force, namely fate in the form of the three witches. The second suggests that there is no supernatural force working against Macbeth

Deskewing Using Binary And Grayscale Images

1617 words - 6 pages lines, which help the algorithm to find the skew angle. With the different lines returned by the KHT, a frequency histogram is created for the lines having an angle between -25 and 25 degrees. The maximum value of the histogram is taken as the estimated skew angle. 1.6.2 Deskewing using grayscale images This algorithm only uses the information of the grayscale image to estimate the skew angle. It is based on the grayscale images