A) Outline The Metaphysical Hierarchy Of Aristotle

1559 words - 6 pages

Metaphysics is the philosophical study that asks the question of what is real. It is the ancient's point of view on reality. There are three answers to the metaphysical question. Monism which states that reality is one and it is the eastern philosophy. Dualism which sees reality as two conflicting forces and the last pluralism which is reality is many. Hierarchy is rooted at pluralism. First we need to define hierarchy as the ancients defined it. Hierarchy is defined as the higher incorporated and transfigure the lower and the lower images the higher. Aristotle outline of hierarchy is the perfect example of how hierarchy works and it defines hierarchy by itself. The lowest level is the inanimate which are simply characterized by their self-identity which is the tendency of something to remain it self and keep its identity, after inanimate comes the plants with their ability to reproduce. Next are animals that are described as being able to feel sensations. After are the humans, characterized by their desire to reason and deliberate, then the gods defined by being immortal, and finally the forms which are not things but patterns of energy that are eternal. Even in each level of hierarchy there can be a higher and lower but something that is higher needs to have more power to operate according to its nature. An example is a student desk and an office desk, they are both inanimate but the office desk is higher in the order than the student desk because it fulfills its duty as a desk better; it operates better according to its nature.Hierarchy can be explained by the example of love and how a human being love makes him more human and how a dog's love to his master is a lower category of love that tries to image human's love. First we need to understand what love is. Love is part of human nature and it is to will the good of the other. We also need to see how the higher incorporates and transfigure the lower and how the lower images the higher. A master's love to his dog is the perfect example of how the higher incorporates and transfigure the lower. The master in this case me; Amr, loves his dog and his love is reflected by the treatment and care that Amr gives his dog, he will will the good of the dog, so when the dog is hungry, Amr will feed him and when he is sick he will take him to the vet because he loves his dog on human level. On the other hand the dog loves his master but the dog's love can only image Amr's love to the dog but can never get to that same level of love because the dog; being lower in the Aristotlristic hierarchy, can not love the same way a human can and can not will the good of the other. Walter Stace writes in "Man Against Darkness" that science has brought new ideas into the world. Instead of a world driven by religion and philosophy, the world is now governed by science. Science has found the causes to many wonders on the earth. Stace writes that there is no purpose in the universe directing human beings to the...

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