Between 1640 and 1720, the mainland colonies became increasingly involved in a network of trade and international contacts that led to territorial expansion and economic growth. The introduction of slavery, changing relations with England, and conflicts with their neighbors shaped this colonial development.
II. The Restoration Colonies
Six new proprietary colonies, known as the Restoration colonies, were founded during the reign of Charles II (1660-1685).
B. New York
Charles gave his younger brother, the Duke of York, claim to the area the Dutch had previously settled as New Netherland.
C. The Duke’s Laws
Proclaimed by the Duke of York in 1665, the Duke’s Laws tolerated the maintenance of Dutch legal practices and allowed each town in New York to decide which church to support with its tax revenues. However, no provision was made for a representative assembly.
D. Founding of New Jersey
The Duke of York regranted much of his land to two friends, thereby limiting the geographical extent and economic growth of New York.
E. Pennsylvania: A Quaker Haven
Charles II gave William Penn a grant in 1681 to repay a debt he owed Penn’s father. A leading member of the Society of Friends, William Penn sought to establish a tolerant, humane, and dynamic colony.
F. William Penn’s Indian Policy
Penn attempted to treat Indians fairly, which in turn attracted many Indian immigrants to his colony. These newcomers often clashed with Europeans also attracted by Penn’s policies.
G. Founding of Carolina
Charles chartered Carolina in 1663. The northern region remained linked to Virginia and developed differently than did the area around Charleston.
III. 1670-1680: A Decade of Crisis
A. New France and the Iroquois
The French claimed the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley. This expansion brought France into conflict with the Iroquois Confederacy, which exerted great influence in what became the northeastern United States. Competition for European trade sparked a series of wars in the region that lasted until 1701.
B. French Expansion into the Mississippi Valley
After the French founded New Orleans in 1718, its posts along the Mississippi became the glue of empire.
C. Popé and the Pueblo Revolt
Resentment over Spanish treatment led a shaman named Popé to lead a revolt among the Pueblo Indians in 1680. This...