This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

A Quick, Simple, Conversion System To Extrapolate Safe Reference Doses From Animal Data To Human Data

1134 words - 5 pages

A Quick, Simple, Conversion System to Extrapolate Safe Reference Doses from Animal Data to Human Data
By Joel 2014

When discussing the idea of chemical doses, safety has to be the number one focus and the main deciding factor when researching a drug. It is useful when designing the initial stages for testing to calculate a threshold below which the probability of harm is almost non-existent. This is how a calculated, presumed “safe” level of exposure is found. This is traditionally found by diving of a NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level), a LOAEL (Lowest Observable Adverse Effect level), using a Benchmark Dose (BMD), a Benchmark Concentration (BMC) or by uncertainty factors to address interspecies and Interindividual variation (IPCS, 1987, 1994).

When there are sources of uncertainty or unaccounted for variability, the magnitude that the NOAEL, LOAEL, BMD, or BMC exceeds the estimated exposure (the “margin of safety” or “margin of exposure) will be considered as well.

“Inter- and intraspecies considerations are an essential part of extrapolation to humans for all of these approaches (IPCS, 1999b) and were described in EHC 210 as follows:

a) Interspecies consideration: comparison of the data for animals with a representative healthy human. Species differences result from metabolic, functional and structural variations.
b) Intraspeciesor interindividual consideration: comparison of the representative healthy human with the range of variability present within the human population in relation to the relevant parameters. “

When human data is available, the relationship between dose and toxicity is easiest determined. When human data is not available it must be derived from animal test data. The process is as follows: First tests are preformed to determine a NOAEL or LOAEL. Second, the tests are analyzed to determine which safety factors or uncertainties need to be accounted for when converting data from animal to human. These allow for issues of incomplete data, differences in metabolic efficiency and differences in their pathways between animals and humans (by incorporating both toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic factors of variability), increased sensitivity among the human population, exchanges of administration type, and many other conditions.

When the NOAEL or LOAEL is analyzed with these variance facts the resultant number is called the RfD or reference dose. The NOAEL or LOAEL is decided by seeing the lowest dose that will affect the most sensitive animal species. This number is the maximum threshold before side effects of any type are first discovered after exposure, dissection, and analysis.

Even though this procedure is technically an estimate, the success of the process is quite evident when looking at the relatively few, limited, and inconclusive health incidents that have occurred because of dosage settings. Analysis of exposure limits that have been set over the past have...

Find Another Essay On A Quick, Simple, Conversion System to Extrapolate Safe Reference Doses from Animal Data to Human Data

Analysis and Research for a data warehouse system

992 words - 4 pages Analysis and Research for a data warehouse system Data warehousing is a difficult system and has to have the capability deliver quality data. An operational database is one which is used by organizations to run its day to day database activities. They are designed to handle rapid transaction processes with systematically updates. Velocity is important to operational databases. They are most commonly operated by office staff, and are on

A Cognitive Model of New Data on Human Problem Solving

2211 words - 9 pages A Cognitive Model of New Data on Human Problem Solving I. Project Description Cognitive modeling is the creation of models which resemble and explain the way in which humans do things. What makes them so interesting to me is the process though which cognitive scientists go in order to create these models. Cognitive scientists often use a generative theory in creating such models. A generative theory is a theory that explains a set of

Incident Response: Computer Security System and Data

1089 words - 5 pages 3.6 Incident Response Incident response is the method for dealing with the security of a computer system when there is an attack. Incident response activities include incident verification, analyzing and containing the attack, collecting and preserving data, fixing the problem, and restoring services. Hence it is very essential to revise the organization's incident response plan and ensure that the differences between the computing environment

Case Study: Data Collection of the Criminal Justice System

905 words - 4 pages The Criminal Justice System has a wide range of data collection. A database gives the crime and public safety information used by the similar areas of the criminal justice systems. Technology provides every division of the criminal justice system results to a flawless use of information significant to its role. Information sharing and crime mapping based on trends increase the criminal justice capabilities of federal and local organizations

Oak Professional Services Human Resource Management statistical data analysis

2016 words - 8 pages , SD=7.45) and females (M=4.06, SD=6.14); t(331.071)=4.19, p=0.0005 0.05In relation to the t-test results one can conclude that men generally work more than women do. The Human Resource director can conduct a specific study to consider these discrepancies to check whether there are issues of sexual discrimination or 'glass ceiling' argument involved.Question 3.In the statistic of job autonomy females (M=3.81) scored higher than males (M=3.74). It

Effective Intrusion Detection System (IDS) with GA based Feature Selection using Data Mining Classification techniques

1096 words - 5 pages host based or network based. In [2], a data mining based network intrusion detection framework in real time is presented. In this paper also network based IDS system is focused to improve its performance. A. Feature selection (FS) It is the process of selecting subset of features from available features to reduce dimensionality of dataset. In FS redundant (duplicated valued) and irrelevant (contains no useful information) features are discarded

History, Clients, Issues and Concerns, and Services in the Human Services Field of Domestic Violence Provide National Data as well as Delaware Data

3145 words - 13 pages years of data available on domestic violence in Delaware. Since the council was founded domestic violence has gained in attention in the First State. Nonetheless, it is almost impossible to obtain current domestic violence statistics. Neither the DVCC and the Delaware Coalition Against Domestic Violence nor the Delaware Statistical Analysis Center, which evaluates data from the State Police's incident-based reporting system, have up-to-date in

System Elements-Data Roles in System Development - End Users Systems Development Life Cycle – Feasibility CMGT 555 / Systems Analysis and Development

1323 words - 5 pages truly is not with the users. The problem is the design of the system, thus forcing users to act in a "system-friendly " way. (Waloszek, 2000) Requiring users to enter data in a set format is the wrong approach. With any system the input fields can be designed to interpret the data entered. This prevents users from entering data incorrectly, and thus eliminates the need for onscreen instructions or the need for any kind of error messages.So, one

Redefining the Data Management Strategy: A Way to Leverage The Huge Chunk Of Data

1289 words - 6 pages upon the optimal utilization of data so as to come up with best feasible solutions for his clients and satisfy the needs of his clients Considering the abundance of data available in the globalized economy by business, consumer, suppliers and market. Mr Arun understood that Utilizing this huge chunk of data is extremely important for their businesses to succeed. On the recommendation from Arun, ABC corporation conducted a study to understand the

You are a researcher working on data from the EPICA ice core as described in epica.csv. You are required to write a short report that presents an analysis of the temporal trends, statistical...

659 words - 3 pages 4SSG1011 - Geographical Concepts Skills and MethodsAssignment 4Bianca Yung Nah Cheung103164726th March, 2012Figure 1: Time series of deuterium values (δD) from 50022B.P. to 129B.P. Data is collected from EPICA Dome C Ice Core, Antarctica.In figure 1, the deuterium value decreases slowly since 50022B.P. until slightly before 20257B.P., from -430dD to -440 dD. Then the figure sets off a sharp increase from slightly before 20257B.P. at -440dD

System Solutions for a business setting in reference to computers

522 words - 2 pages , such as employee training, entering old data into the new system, and will current computers be adequate or will it be feasible to purchase new computers. The server must able to track all transactions from the different branches and be accessible to employees as needed.In closing the organization will capitalize from the customer assist information, therefore increase revenue by using it as a sales tool. Management also recognizes the constraints in defining the project. Research and development of the system will be costly and time consuming but will become an effective tool in proactive customer service.

Similar Essays

Database, Data Handling, How To Create A Database System

9426 words - 38 pages would help sort out the database and delete any old information. This will also help with the data protection act 1998.User friendly, the new system will need to be user friendly, it should be able to be run by anyone who have never used a computer before. It would also need to be a very quick system and adding a new product; new customer or making a new order will need to be done in a number of minutes.Error message's that are very user

A Data Center Electrical System Essay

1709 words - 7 pages within the Riker Facility has 90 minute backup batteries. The battery packs within the lights provide support for the need of egress only. Data centers play a role in the daily lives of anyone who uses the internet. They provide the backbone to search engines and help to keep your files safe and secure. The breakdown of electrical rooms keeps data centers fairly simple and help with the organization of systems. Phasing provides a symmetrical

Remote Electronic Voting: A Simple, Safe, And Accurate Voting System

1532 words - 6 pages Remote Electronic Voting: A Simple, Safe, and Accurate Voting System Does it not seem obvious that the United States should be voting over the Internet by now? Considering all the vitally important monetary and information-related transactions that occur over the Internet every day, one would think this could and would have happened already. However, Remote Electronic Voting, especially on a national scale, presents us with

Data Transmission System Essay

3668 words - 15 pages not only as a reference, but also as an important tool in defining the requirements that the new system must meet.The data flow diagram assists in the following explanation and analysis of the current data transmission system. The 12 Air Force A2 gathers intelligence data from unmanned aircraft that fly over various locations around the world. Data gathered from these aircraft are used for logistical purposes for several sectors throughout the