Ansar al-Islam (AAI) issue titled the magazine and TV in September 2001, when it killed forty-two Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) fighters. This was awakened up the Kurds, who rapidly built up a conventional defensive front. It was very clearly apparent that the Kurdish was the main objective as priority of the new jihadist war, (Schanzer 2004: 43). The group was established in Kurdistan region in 2001 as a Salafist Islamist organization imposed a strict application of the Sharia in some villages around Halabja city, near the Iranian border. After the US invasion of Iraq, AAI became a clandestine insurgent group, which fought against the Kurdish political parties and the US ...view middle of the document...
The IMK amalgamated several groups, some of whose cadres had fought experience with Islamic groups in Afghanistan during 1980. The IMK was assumed the third most important political and military army in Kurdistan during 1990-1997. While Kurdish had unsuccessfully contested parliamentary elections in 1992, the Islamic Movement of Kurdistan kept it away from participation Kurdish administration, relying instead on growing and strengthening a distinct administrative, military and political structure in fields under its own power, (Zenko 2009: 618 & Human Right Watch 2003).
The IMK fragmented over power struggle as well as policy distinctions during 1997. Some smaller groups with the IMK, which advocated a more radical and ultra-orthodox Islamic ideology, also splintered form, the movement at different times. Of these groups, the most significantly militaries were factions namely the Soran Forces, Tawhid and Hamas. These smaller splinter groups themselves regularly unified, On September 1, 2001, they announced Jundal Islam (Soldiers of Islam) organization. The group very soon changed its name for Ansar al-Islam (Supporters of Islam) in December 2001, and then it declared jihad (holy war) against apostates and other secular political parties in Kurdistan, that was because the group did not accept the Kurdish sculler administration. AAI was financially and military sponsored by al-Qaeda, Iran and Wahhabi basic in Saudi Arabia. Najmuddin Faraj Ahmad (Mala Fateh Krekar), whom a long member of the IMK became the leader (Emir) of Ansar al-Islam, (Joscelyn & Roggio 2012, Zenko 2009: 618-19 and Rubin 2004: 6). However, in the face of rise anti-terrorist pressure and changes in political environment since 9/11, PUK soldiers (peshmerga), backed by Special Forces of the US carried out an abroad military operation against AAI, as well as, on March 29, 2003, they killed and defeated hundreds of Ansar militants. There were more than 300-350 Ansar’s survivors, according to CIA report cited in Rubin (2004:17), had fled to Iran.
Ansar al-Islam names as terrorist
Can we name Ansar al-Islam as terrorist? However, terrorism is highly contested idea and no consensus among the scholars or politician can be found as to who becomes terrorist and which group should be label as terrorist. In this essay, we are attempting to pursue the most prominent terrorism definition by both scholars Schmid and Jongman cited in Jackson et al (2011: 104), in order to be a significant mirror to reflect off the aspect of AAI:
Terrorism could be defined as an anxiety inspiring process, which sustain of repeated violent action, operated by (semi-) clandestine character, group or state players, for strange habit, criminal or political senses….. Individual and population randomly or selectively are became a main target. “Threat and violence based communication process between terrorist (organization), (imperilled) victims, and main targets are used to manipulate the main target (audience(s)),...