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A Review Of The Literature On Marijuana

3267 words - 13 pages

A considerable amount of literature has been published on cannabis specifically marijuana. These studies classify marijuana into three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. In fact, Cannabis sativa is the most widely used and recognized among the other species due to its ability to produce more fiber and oil. For many years, the plant has been used for making clothes as well as lighting and soap. Nevertheless, cannabis is widely used at the present time for intoxication and medical treatments. Marijuana is usually extracted from the flowers of the female plant (Grinspoon & Bakalar, 1993). According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana is well-defined as the “dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which contains the psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as other related compounds. This plant material can also be concentrated in a resin called hashish” (NIDA, 2014).

Numerous studies have attempted to explain the use of cannabis throughout history. For example, Doweiko (2009) mentioned that the Chinese physicians have used the cannabis to treat some diseases such as malaria, constipation, child birth, and as an anesthetic for surgery. During the nineteenth century, cannabis (marijuana) is also used for medical purposes to treat headaches and migraine. However, during the early years of the twentieth century, people began to view cannabis as an abusing drug as the researchers determined its ineffectiveness as a medicinal drug. Some historians have argued that marijuana was first introduced into the American society by the Mexican immigrants during the same period. This recreation drug was soon embraced by others specifically the jazz musicians. Other historians pointed out that marijuana use has emerged during the Prohibition of alcohol era in the 1920s. They contended that, “marijuana clubs, called tea pads, sprang up in every major city. These marijuana establishments were tolerated by the authorities because marijuana was not illegal and patrons showed no evidence of making a nuisance of themselves or disturbing the community” (Marijuana History, n.d.).
Marijuana Is Medicine
Many research studies have mentioned that people have used marijuana as medicine to treat various diseases and ailments such as pain, insomnia, loss of appetite, and depression. For instance, during the period 1838-1840, a British doctor conducted a research study on patients in India regarding the medicinal effects of marijuana on some diseases, such as tetanus, rabies, and rheumatism. After returning to England, he brought the same drug with him to be popular medicine among the British people. Soon many articles were published about the medical effects of marijuana both in the European and American journals. Further, in 1972, a group of researchers conducted a study on the medical effects of marijuana and they found that it could treat...

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