This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

A Review On Various Digital Image Encryption Techniques

1487 words - 6 pages

The Internet and the information technology are evolving rapidly. Consequently, people are using interactive media extensively in communication. The images occupy a vast portion of multimedia and play a significant role in communication, e.g., military, national security agencies, diplomatic affairs and social. Since, an image may contain highly confidential information and when people want to transfer an image over insecure a network, then it is necessary to provide sublime protection. Mainly, an image needs protection against tampering and breaching confidentiality by illegal parties.
The primary purpose of keeping the image secured is to maintain the confidentiality, ...view middle of the document...

However, the public key and the private (secret) key are different, but mathematically are connected. Apart from that, Hashing ensures authenticity of the retrieved image due to having the one way property.
There are diverse algorithms to encrypt data, specifically, RSA, DES, and AES and are paramount to encrypt the text data; however these algorithms are less effective for the image encryption [6]. Since, the images have intrinsic features such as redundancy of pixels and high correlation between two adjacent pixels [6]. Consequently, it is effortless to infer the value of neighbors of a pixel. Therefore, the images need effective security technique to insure the absolute security.
Primarily, the image encryption techniques are based on three methods. (1) Pixel permutation based [22] [23]: the encryption technique disperses the pixels (2) Pixel substitution based [22] [23]: the encryption technique modifies the pixel value (3) Visual transformation based [22] [23].
Mainly, an excellent encryption technique qualifies these following salient security parameters: (1) large key space: large key space is necessary to thwart the brute force attack [2]. An encryption technique must have adequate large key space. (2) Key sensitivity: It ensures that system generate entirely different consequence in spite of a whit change in key [8]. Thus an encryption technique must be key sensitive. (3) Uniform Image histogram: Histogram provides information about the frequency distribution of continuous pixels and density estimation [19] [20]. So a cipher image must have a uniform histogram to be secure from known plaintext attack [21]. (4) Information entropy: It defines the degree of uncertainty and uniform distribution in the system [17]. Thus an encryption technique must show randomness and uniform distribution in the encryption process. (5) Correlation analysis: It assesses the correlation between two adjacent pixels of the plain-image and the cipher image [17]. A cipher image must have low correlation between two adjacent pixels. (6) Differential analysis: NPCR and UACI compute the strength against to differential attacks of image [17]. NPCR determines the change rate of number of pixels in the cipher image after modification in one pixel of the plain-image [17] [18], consequently, high NPCR value is effective. Furthermore, UACI computes the variation in intensity of the corresponding pixel of the plain-image and the cipher image [18].
Apart from these techniques, Artificial neural network also an approach which provides security to an image. Artificial neural network (ANN) is effective duo to its non linear and one way properties [11]. In ANN it is easy to produce output while to retrieve input from output is a difficult task and without information of weights and bias, it is almost impossible to retrieve input from output back [11].
Furthermore, compression is another technique to encrypt an image by...


A Utilitarian View on Digital Copyrights

1644 words - 7 pages . First Monday, 4(6). Lemley, M. A. & Anthony Reese, R. (2004). Reducing digital copyright infringement without restricting innovation. Stanford Law Review, 56, 1345–1641. Lipton, J. D. (2010). Copyright’s twilight zone: Digital copyright lessons from the vampire blogosphere. Maryland Law Review, 70, 1–1171. Litman, J. (2001). Digital copyright: Protecting intellectual property on the Internet (pp. 15¬–34), Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Investment Appraisal techniques required for proposed investment on the new digital photograhic printer

3028 words - 12 pages follows;Analysis and interpretation 65%Integration of academic literature 35%No. 1 New Market Road,HULLYorkshireHU2 9BQ11th December 2006Attention: Managing Director From: Financial AssistantRE: Suggested techniques required for the proposed investment on the new digital photographic printer.In reference to the meeting held on the 6th of November 2006, I have provided you with information below on the investment appraisal techniques and sources of

A review to cloud computing modeling,simulations and testing techniques

1707 words - 7 pages simulators based on software and simulators based on both software and hardware. These simulators are used in validation of those models Section 2 (modeling) and section 3 (simulation) technology is a suitable tool for evaluating cloud performance and concerned security issues but for evaluating QOS , cloud based web applications are tested by stimulated real world web traffic. Cloud testing termed as testing as a service, which is reviewed in

A Modern Female Image in A Woman on a Roof

1317 words - 5 pages A Modern Female Image in A Woman on a RoofDoris Lessing, the winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Literature, is described as the epicist of the female experience, with skepticism, fire and visionary power that have subjected a divided civilization to scrutiny. With the subtle depiction of women and their life experiences, Lessing illustrates her deep concern of women's social status and rights. In A Woman On a Roof, one of the twentieth century's

A Company Based on Digital Advertising: Big Spaceship

515 words - 2 pages Digital advertising is one of the fast expanding and fast evolving industry. Big Spaceship entered the digital marketing industry in the early stage of its development, and this shaped a strong advantage for the firm as one of the most creative leaders. Big Spaceship as one of the innovation-led digital marketing agency, it focuses on the practice of innovation-driven culture and following a distinctive model of engaging with client. Value

A Distorted Perception of Beauty: Media’s Influence on Body Image

1305 words - 5 pages A Distorted Perception of Beauty: Media’s Influence on Body Image In today’s society, young women are developing a distorted perception of beauty because of the affects of media: advertising, magazines, and television and movies. Almost every image in the media features a picture of a young woman who is edited almost beyond recognition. It seems that every image of a young woman is the media’s “perfect lie,” that is hardly any image is pure or

Media Has a Negative Impact on Females' Body Image

2219 words - 9 pages Media has a negative impact on females’ body image by promoting artificial beauty. Women often become dissatisfied with their bodies, which cause them to develop eating disorders. Body image affects a woman’s perceptions and feelings about their physical appearance when looking in the mirror. The media portrays unrealistic beauty of women who are thin with perfect hair and make-up. Many women who expose themselves to the unrealistic standards

Media: A Strong Influence on Body Image and Disordered Eating

1945 words - 8 pages in whether or not media will have such a negative role in ones chance of developing an eating disorder, but in addition, there are several societal factors, which may also negatively influence ones level of body satisfaction. In 1999, Heinberg and Thompson studied the roles of social influence on both body image disturbances and eating disorders. While specifically looking at standards of attractiveness in the American society, the two were able

A review on The Matrix

1152 words - 5 pages can be read like a book on specialized computers. Using this to their advantage, the crusaders for freedom, manipulate the matrix and program themselves as if they too were digital computers. Neo takes the offer to see this new digital life that everyone seems to be oblivious to. Neo is now in the real world and must fight for his life against the inhuman government agents who are "no one, but everyone" as Morphius quotes. These agents are

a review on african socialization

815 words - 4 pages to combat the issue of the growing slums. “African Urbanization” analyzes the efforts of Morocco, Nigeria, and Rwanda. This review provides a recapitulation of these efforts and presents the information on ending slums that the article deduces from these nations’ attempts. The review also furnishes the authors reasoning for choosing to review the article. Through its “Cities without Slums” program, Morocco exemplifies a successful effort to

Technical Review of "The Shawshank Redemption" (Comment on the techniques and themes used in the movie)

1048 words - 4 pages "The Shawshank Redemption" is a 1994 film which is your basic "prison" movie. I was apprehensive and sceptical at first about the movie but while watching I found the movie has many hidden messages. These messages, or motifs, have been done subliminally and you cannot pick them out on your first viewing. There are many techniques used such as themes/messages, colours, music, lighting and hostility which make the film gain a more meaningful

Similar Essays

Various Digital Image Encryption Techniques Essay

2661 words - 11 pages the new chaotic system along with high sensitivity in key changes for encryption and decryption. Consequently, the proposed system provides the excellent security against the brute force attack as well as high key sensitivity and chaotic behavior. [3]. A Novel Digital Image Encryption Method Based on One-dimensional Random Scrambling (2012) In this paper, Qiudong Sun, Ping Guan, Yongping and Yunfeng Xue have propounded a one-dimensional random

A Review On Vrious Digital Image Ecryption Techniques

2431 words - 10 pages security. This key has all parameter settings and initial values of the new chaotic system with high sensitivity in key changes for encryption and decryption. Consequently, the proposed system provides the excellent security against the brute force attack due to large key space. [3]. A Novel Digital Image Encryption Method Based on One-dimensional Random Scrambling (2012) In this paper, Qiudong Sun, Ping Guan, Yongping and Yunfeng Xue proposed an Image

Automatic Optic Disc Detection In Digital Fundus Images Using Image Processing Techniques

1990 words - 8 pages boundary of the OD. IV. RESULTS The proposed method applied on selected images from MESSIDOR database. In some of the images OD segmented properly and in some images proposed method failed to segment OD properly as shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 respectively. V. CONCLUSION This paper presents a simple method for OD segmentation by using image processing techniques. This method applied to selected images. Accuracy depends on image acquisition and

The Main Techniques Of Telling A Story In Various Films

1727 words - 7 pages The Main Techniques of Telling a Story in Various Films The First film I’m going to talk about is “The Blair witch project” which is a story about 3 teenagers who are filming a documentary about The Blair Witch which is a legend told for years which is said to be true. They act and talk in dialogue making the film seem real we can also relate to this film if we have ever filmed ourselves hanging out with our friends as