This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

A Short History Of The World J. M. Roberts

1012 words - 4 pages

In A Short History of the World J. M. Roberts argues, “The Coming of Agriculture changed life so much and so deeply that nothing since would have been possible without it” (Roberts 1993, 22). Prior to the emergence of agriculture, and "for most of human history, people lived in relatively small groups, gathering, fishing, and hunting what they needed from their immediate environments" (Goucher and Walton 2013, 36). Because of the unpredictable nature of this way of life, hunting, gathering and fishing could not sustain large groups of people for extended periods of time. Seasonal influences, animal migrations or even human pressures on the environment often forced people to move their settlements to areas that could sustain their survival. On a larger scale, migrations were typically precipitated by factors including: changes in climate such as recession of glacial ice, population increases that exhausted or stressed natural resources, sudden ecological changes caused by floods and volcanoes and the emergence of technologies such as communication, use of tools and metals, and the advent of agriculture.
Over time, as humans' relationships to their environment changed, their subsistence strategies had to change. Climatic changes that produced droughts in once fertile and productive areas made it impossible for hunting and gathering people to maintain their mobile way of life. Being forced to stay close to any source of water they could find, they began planting fields of wheat and barley around them (Guns, Germs and Steel, 2005). Increased production of grain required the development of storage technologies which would then permit people to store their grains for long periods of time. Production and storage of grains allowed people to remain stationary. Over time, stationary farming communities were able to become selective in their harvesting of only choice grains. The domestication of plants resulted from this prolonged planting and harvesting of choice grain. As populations increased, the pressure grew to become even more productive as farmers. The domestication of animals as well as the introduction of iron technology and the harness allowed for greater productivity (Goucher and Walton 2013, 51). These technological innovations contributed to the societies' ability to sustain their growing populations with greater ease.
Though early agriculture was degrading on the environment and more difficult and labor intensive than previous hunting, gathering and fishing strategies, the benefits far outweighed the costs. The emergence of agriculture allowed formerly mobile, small groups of people to lay down roots and become settled communities. Increased agricultural productivity led to the specialization of occupations including "woolen textiles, metal goods and pottery" (67). Specialization fostered the development of complex networks for trade which created greater diversity in resource availability and consumption.
Early settled societies...

Find Another Essay On A Short History of the World J. M. Roberts

A short history of baseball Essay

559 words - 2 pages The history of baseball deeply embedded in the folklore of American sports is the story of baseball's invention by a young West Point cadet, Abner Doubleday, in the summer of 1839 at the village of Cooperstown, New York. Mostly a Northern and Midwestern phenomenon, baseball fever ran highest in the New York City area, where in the 1850s, games were being played "on every available green plot within a ten-mile circuit of the city." Spearheading

The End of The World: A Short Story

1507 words - 7 pages although the human race had fought a valiant battle, every attempt they made against their vicious competitor had barely caused a scratch against the massive pile of rock. And it was funny, it really was, that the human race had survived for thousands of years; they had stained the world with blood of their brethren, breathed life into the world and into humanity, had enriched the world with culture and our essence, yet they would die due to a

A Short History of the Worlds Exchange Rate Systems

2898 words - 12 pages discussion on this topic is an understanding of certain classical and neo-classical analytical frameworks. Therefore section one will briefly present and explain the logic of Hume's Mechanism and the 'Impossible Trinity.' Section Two outlines a chronological history of various exchange rate mechanisms along with their corresponding successes and failures. Section three draws parallels between the Gold Standard and the European Monetary Union and

The Life of Patricia Roberts Harris

738 words - 3 pages showing that wemon can do the same things guys can do. Works Cited The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Patricia Roberts Harris (American Public Official)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Sept. 2013. Web. 23 Feb. 2014. "Patricia Roberts Harris Biography at Black History Now." Black Heritage Commemorative Society Patricia Roberts Harris Comments. BSH, 23 July 2011. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. "Patricia Roberts Harris Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. Tyler, Erica. "Little Known Black History Fact: Patricia Roberts Harris." Black America Web RSS. Tom Joyner Morning Show, 4 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

Theme, Symbolism, and Irony in The Works of J. M. Barrie

2991 words - 12 pages adult. In the account of his mother’s life, Barrie tells us: In her happiest moments-and never was a happier woman-her mouth did not of a sudden begin to twitch, and tears to lie on the mute blue eyes in which I have read all that I know and would ever care to write. For when you looked into my mother’s eyes you knew, as if He had told you, why God sent her into the world-it was to open the mind of all who looked to beautiful thoughts. And that is

Death Of a Salesman- is the presentation of women balanced - St Roberts / Yr 12 - essay

678 words - 3 pages In the play Death of a Salesman Miller’s presentation of women could arguably be classified as balanced but could just equally be classified as unbalanced. There are only four women in the whole of the play and Miller presents each one of them in a different way which creates a contrast between the women throughout the play. The difference in the way that Miller presents each of his female characters could be implicit of the social class system at

Dr. S. Oliver Roberts: Educator and Founder of the Fisk University Psychology Department - Fisk University African American History - Essay

2712 words - 11 pages 0 Dr. S. Oliver Roberts: Educator and Founder of the Fisk Psychology Department Tomill Newsom History 270-001: African American History November 9, 2017 S. Oliver Roberts (1910-1984), educator and former chairman of the department of psychology at Fisk University, was born in Alexandria, Virginia, to George and Esther Ragland Roberts. Dr. Roberts is well known both nationally and in the Nashville community as a distinguished psychologist and

A Short History of Nearly Everything

1027 words - 5 pages In A Short History of Nearly Everything Bill Bryson undertakes the task of explaining every noteworthy event from the Big Bang to the rise of civilization or as he puts it “…how we went from there being nothing at all to there being something, and then how a little of that something turned into us, and also what happened in between and since.” Bryson explains his reasoning for writing the books was because he was discontented with the textbook

The Moleskine Notebook – A Short History

663 words - 3 pages predominantly keeping the popularity and the title as one of the premier notebooks in the world as high as possible. One of the most popular sites being, www.moleskinerie.com started by Armand Frasco. Brand Innovation is a delighted supplier of Moleskine Notebooks. We take lovely care of our customers and their products. We deliver to your door, anywhere in South Africa.

The Honorable John G. Roberts, Jr : A Biographical Sketch of the 17th Chief Justice of the United States

1222 words - 5 pages with aspirations of becoming a history professor. After graduating from Harvard, summa cum laude, after only three years, He then attended the School of Law at Harvard. It was at Harvard law school that John discovered his passion for law and graduated, magna cum laude, with a J.D. In 1979. While at Harvard Law School he also he was also the managing editor of the Harvard Law Review (John Roberts Biography). John married Jane Sullivan in 1996

Elizabeth Curren in J. M. Coetzee's Age of Iron

3020 words - 12 pages Elizabeth Curren in J. M. Coetzee's Age of Iron "Given or lent?” asks T. S. Eliot in his poem “Marina,” as he examines the construction of one’s own life from the point of view of a speaker who, reaching the later years of life, feels an urge to “resign” tattered, old life for “the hope, the new ships.” J. M. Coetzee grapples with some similar issues with his character Elizabeth Curren in the novel Age of Iron. Curren throughout the course

Similar Essays

A Short History Of The Blues

2265 words - 9 pages , would later become a staple of the most beautiful sounds of the pioneers of blues music. But not only is Handy amazed with the triumphant sound of the guitar, he is also mesmerized by the heart pounding words and eerie sound of the vocals coming from this dreadful looking specimen. This is the earliest known observation of the blues in the history of the world but not quite the birth of it. Santelli clarifies, “What Handy did on that railroad

The Magistrate's Relationship With The Barbarian Girl Through A Close Reading Of "Waiting For The Barbarians" By J. M. Coetzee

1463 words - 6 pages "All this erotic behavior of mine is indirect: I prowl about her, touching her face, caressing her body, without entering her or finding the urge to do so. ... But with this woman it is as if there is no interior, only a surface across which I hunt back and forth seeking entry. Is this how her torturers felt hunting their secret, whatever they thought it was?" - pg.43.One of the central figures in J. M. Coetzee's "Waiting for the Barbarians" is

A History Of The World Essay

768 words - 4 pages series of events that ultimately shaped Egypt into the modern republic it is now. In this episode of ‘A History of the World in 101 Objects,’ we will delve into the history behind this legendary Stele, explore the ancient and current significance of such a production, and attempt to lift the veil on topics such as consolidating Menes with Narmer. Looking at this Palette, it isn’t hard to see how the old Egyptian subjects were so entranced by their

A Short History Of Ethics Essay

1276 words - 5 pages In chapters three and four of A Short History of Ethics, Alastair MacIntyre makes a clear distinction between two philosophical doctrines at loggerheads: the Sophists and Socrates. The Sophistic amalgam of personal success, lust and power is constantly interrogated by an interlocutor in an endless plight to reveal Sophistic ignorance, fruitless desires and the right to universal justice. MacIntyre identifies the codes of both parties, and