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Aba Strategies For Language Acquisition And Development

1686 words - 7 pages

Incidental teaching focuses on child-initiated interactions. (Hall, 2013) Incidental teaching is used to increase skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. (Hall, 2013) A study done by Hart and Risley (1975) looked at the incidental teaching process used at the preschool age to aide in teaching language. Incidental teaching has been the most frequent strategy that has been used to teach language. When using incidental teaching a child’s request may be verbal or nonverbal. Examples include reaching for an object that is out of one’s reach, requesting food or a toy or calling an adult’s name. There is a series of decisions that an adult can use to respond to the child’s request. These choices include: if the occasion should be used for incidental teaching: if so then a choice regarding the language behavior that is obtained from the child, and then a choice has to be made concerning the cue that will be used to initiate instruction, the cur could be focus of attention by itself, or in addition to the focused attention a verbal cue as well. If the individual does not respond to the cue, then a choice concerning the degree of prompt to be used, the “fullest degree: a request for imitation; medium degree: a request for partial imitation, or minimal degree: a request for the terminal language behavior.” (Hart & Risley, 1975) This study was performed on boys and girls between the ages of four years old to five years old. The baseline procedures ensured that the children had a variety of vocabulary for use in sentences. The sentences that they were taught was “I want x so I can y.” The second step of the procedure was the use of incidental teaching of compound sentences directed to teachers. After thirty-six days of school, the incidental teaching began to occur when the children needed assistance in trying to get different preschool materials. This became occasions for instruction in the use of compound sentences. The environment in the preschool stayed the same; the only thing that changed was that when the child requested an object, the teacher presented a cue. When the student requested the material appropriately using a compound sentence, their language behavior was praised. This part of the procedure, the interaction occurred between the student and the instructor. After the seventy-seventh day of school, “the incidental teaching situations arising when children needed assistance in obtaining a play material were used to instruct the children to address the previously learned language behavior, a compound sentence to another child”. (Hart & Risley, 1975) This procedure differed from the first part because this was child-to-child interaction. This step was performed to generalize the language behavior to people other than those who had directly taught the behavior. Again, in this step of the procedure, the preschool environment stayed the same, besides that now, when the child initiated a teaching situation by...

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