Abnormal Psychology Essay

2082 words - 8 pages

PSIKOLOGI ABNORMALOleh: M. Fakhrurrozi, S.PsiAPAKAH PERILAKU ABNORMAL ITU?Ada beberapa kriteria yang digunakan untuk menentukan suatu perilaku abnormal, antara lain:1. Statistical infrequencyPerspektif ini menggunakan pengukuran statistik dimana semua variabel yang yang akan diukur didistribusikan ke dalam suatu kurva normal atau kurva dengan bentuk lonceng. Kebanyakan orang akan berada pada bagian tengah kurva, sebaliknya abnormalitas ditunjukkan pada distribusi di kedua ujung kurva.Digunakan dalam bidang medis atau psikologis. Misalnya mengukur tekanan darah, tinggi badan, intelegensi, ketrampilan membaca, dsb.Namun, kita jarang menggunakan istilah abnormal untuk salah satu kutub (sebelah kanan). Misalnya orang yang mempunyai IQ 150, tidak disebut sebagai abnormal tapi jenius.Tidak selamanya yang jarang terjadi adalah abnormal. Misalnya seorang atlet yang mempunyai kemampuan luar biasa tidak dikatakan abnormal. Untuk itu dibutuhkan informasi lain sehingga dapat ditentukan apakah perilaku itu normal atau abnormal.2. UnexpectednessBiasanya perilaku abnormal merupakan suatu bentuk respon yang tidak diharapkan terjadi. Contohnya seseorang tiba-tiba menjadi cemas (misalnya ditunjukkan dengan berkeringat dan gemetar) ketika berada di tengah-tengah suasana keluarganya yang berbahagia. Atau seseorang mengkhawatirkan kondisi keuangan keluarganya, padahal ekonomi keluarganya saat itu sedang meningkat. Respon yang ditunjukkan adalah tidak diharapkan terjadi.3. Violation of normsPerilaku abnormal ditentukan dengan mempertimbangkan konteks sosial dimana perilaku tersebut terjadi.Jika perilaku sesuai dengan norma masyarakat, berarti normal. Sebaliknya jika bertentangan dengan norma yang berlaku, berarti abnormal.Kriteria ini mengakibatkan definisi abnormal bersifat relatif tergantung pada norma masyarakat dan budaya pada saat itu. Misalnya di Amerika pada tahun 1970-an, homoseksual merupakan perilaku abnormal, tapi sekarang homoseksual tidak lagi dianggap abnormal.Walaupun kriteria ini dapat membantu untuk mengklarifikasi relativitas definisi abnormal sesuai sejarah dan budaya tapi kriteria ini tidak cukup untuk mendefinisikan abnormalitas. Misalnya pelacuran dan perampokan yang jelas melanggar norma masyarakat tidak dijadikan salah satu kajian dalam psikologi abnormal.4. Personal distressPerilaku dianggap abnormal jika hal itu menimbulkan penderitaan dan kesengsaraan bagi individu.Tidak semua gangguan (disorder) menyebabkan distress. Misalnya psikopat yang mengancam atau melukai orang lain tanpa menunjukkan suatu rasa bersalah atau kecemasan.Juga tidak semua penderitaan atau kesakitan merupakan abnormal. Misalnya seseorang yang sakit karena disuntik.Kriteria ini bersifat subjektif karena susah untuk menentukan setandar tingkat distress seseorang agar dapat diberlakukan secara umum.5. DisabilityIndividu mengalami ketidakmampuan (kesulitan) untuk mencapai tujuan karena abnormalitas yang dideritanya. Misalnya para pemakai narkoba dianggap abnormal karena...

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