Abraham H. Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model between 1943-54 in USA, and this theory remains valid even today for understanding human motivation, management training and personal development. (4) A. H. Maslow first introduced his idea of hierarchy of needs in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” and his succeeding book Motivation and Personality in 1943. He stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and they are intended to fulfil basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs and when one need is fulfilled they move on the next one, and so on. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs includes five motivational needs, often displayed as a hierarchical pyramid with five levels. This five level model can be divided into basic needs or deficiency needs and growth needs. The four lower levels are considered basic needs and the top level is considered growth needs. The five different level of hierarchy of needs are:
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Social needs
4. Esteem needs
5. Self actualization needs
Abraham Maslow believed that these needs are like instincts and play a key role in motivating behaviour. Deficiency needs (also called D-needs) arise due to deprivation. D-needs motivate people when they are unmet. Physiological, Safety, Belonging and Esteem needs are deficiency needs. Growth needs (also called being needs or B-needs) is the highest level of the pyramid (Self Actualization). B-needs don’t restrict from a lack of something, but rather from a need to grow as a person.
These are the basic necessities that a person requires to survive. They include air, food, water and sleep. The major factor of motivation for a human being who is missing everything in life would be physiological needs rather than anything else.
If physiological needs are well...