Absolute Monarchy was a major form of government in Europe during the Renaissance. The monarch of that country controlled every aspect of their country and acts as the undisputed head of state. Whether economic, social, religious, or domestic the monarch had his say in every matter in their country. While except in places like the Middle East and Africa, absolute monarchs have ceased to exist, their policies and actions are used in the governments of today.
During the Renaissance countries like Spain, England, France, Russia, Sweden, and Austria all had absolute monarchs. Even though they differed in many policies they all had the power to do anything they pleased. The only thing that held them in check was the morale support of their armies. If the army of the monarchs were to go against them then all the power of the monarch would be lost. This was highly important because many of the absolute monarchs would fight against each other for religious or purely political reasons. They would fight in Europe or in their overseas colonies in the new world.
After years of turmoil during the reign of Ivan the Terrible the Boyar Duma, ,a council of Russian nobles, appointed the young Peter Alekseyevich Romanovas the next Tsar of Russia. He was better known as Peter the Great. Peter took control of his country and established a dynasty that lasted until World War I.
Peter realized that Russia seemed like a backwards country compared to Western Europe. He recruited western figures to come to Russia as his ministers and help him fulfil his policy of Westernization.
Peter instituted the policy of Mercantilism from Western Europe to stimulate agriculture, industry and commerce. The state dominated all forms of industry. The state was the source of capital, raw materials and labor. The state was also the main purchaser of finished goods. In 1718, two colleges were created for commerce and mines and manufacturing. Under state direction, factories of all types were developed. Prices were fixed by the state and the state had the right to be the first purchaser from the producers - but at a price fixed by the state. Private businesses could make a profit only on the surplus of produce which the state did not want and many successful enterprises were simply taken over by the state. Peter also dreamed for a warm weather port where the water wouldn’t freeze and could be open all year for trade. During the Great Northern War Peter finally received his port in the form of St. Petersburg. He for a short time even moved the capital to St. Petersburg. He extended Russia’s border east and mined the abundant natural resources there.
While Peter’s foreign policy was directly related to his economic policy of receiving a warm weather port on the Baltic Sea he also had different goals. He wanted to prove to the world that Russia was a power to be reckoned with. He mainly wanted to improve diplomatic relations. He needed this to improve relations with European countries. He...