Global health inequalities within and between countries are still prominent although we are approaching post MDG (Millennium Development Goals) era. It can be clearly seen with the fact that 99% of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. Not surprisingly, more than half of these deaths are from sub-Saharan Africa and one third from South Asia (WHO, 2012). In terms of HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome), sub-Saharan Africa again bears 70% of the global prevalence burden (WHO, 2013).
In order to fulfill the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the primary responsibility lies on the ...view middle of the document...
Health is no longer regarded as a concern limited by national borders, since the world faced the evident impact of HIV/AIDS. It drew attention of massive global response and, as a result, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in 2002 and several donors and United Nations agencies joined this control (Elmendorf, 2010). Soon after, with the expiring of MDGs in 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed "Universal Health Coverage (UHC)" as a single overarching health goal to fulfill health equity and the right to health. It is now high on the global health agenda with three dimensions of coverage: 1) the proportion of the people served; 2) the types of services covered; and the proportion of health costs shared by the insured funds (Figure 1) (WHO, 2010).
Figure 1: Dimensions of Universal Health Coverage
From Paris Declaration to Busan High Level Forum, aid effectiveness has been the major topic for poverty reduction through alignment of finances according to the priorities of recipient countries, and it becomes more crucial in achieving UHC. The share of health sector in ODA has notably increased over last ten years, however, without taking HIV/AIDS into account, the share for health is in fact reducing (MacKellar, 2005). Even for the commitments already made, the contributing countries often fail to provide their obligation of 0.7% of their gross national income. Furthermore, health ODA in developing countries usually emphasize on specific diseases, such as vertical programs on HIV, Malaria, and immunization, rather than strengthening health systems. These challenge the poor countries in balancing particular diseases of global response and illness of their own priorities.
That is why, the Global Fund for Health is anticipated to be established to deliver equitable health services and correct global health inequities. In order to fulfill the core content of the right to health, all countries, particularly high income countries, are expected to take their global responsibility, as secondary or subsidiary...