Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Essay

1185 words - 5 pages

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common childhood cancer accounting for around 20-30% of all childhood neoplasms. Annual incidence rates vary worldwide between one and four cases per 100,000, primarily in children ages two - six years old (1). The disease is less common in adults, with only around 1,000 cases being diagnosed annually and with a significantly lower cure rate, rarely exceeding 40%. In turn, infants diagnosed under the age of one have an even poorer survival rate of 30%. Several studies in monozygotic twins and neonatal blood smears have indicated a clear prenatal origin for childhood cases, detecting specific genetic abnormalities in prenatal samples, which may act as initiating events although clearly further postnatal events are required for transformation (2; 3; 4). TEL-AML fusion genes, for example, were found in 1% of newborn samples, which is significantly greater than the number of ALL cases, clearly demonstrating that there may often be a prenatal origin for initial genetic aberrations and that further genetic alterations are necessary to develop ALL (3; 4). A small study further supports a prenatal origin in a pair of monozygotic twins with childhood B cell precursor (BCP) ALL with identical cytogenetic abnormalities, signifying a prenatal foundation, as well various contrasting genetic lesions illustrating that further genetic events are required to generate a malignant phenotype (2). A few inherited syndromes such as Down’s syndrome, Bloom’s syndrome and other genetic syndromes have also been associated with a risk. Environmental factors may also play a role in the development of ALL such as exposure to radiation, chemotherapy and possibly infections. Two infection based theories based on observations that there can be an occasional clustering of cases, along with the modern industrializations of societies and the peak age groups affected may provide some explanation in the mechanism for the development of ALL (4). Kinlen’s hypothesis speculates that it may be fueled by exposure of common pathogens to susceptible individuals after population mixing, while Greave hypothesizes that it may be as the result of a late exposure to a pathogen which may aggregate or push a prenatally derived hematologic cell with predisposed genetics lesions into a transformed leukaemia cell, although no causative infectious agents have been identified to fully support these theories for ALL (4; 5). Lymphocytes committed to differentiate into a B or T cell are transformed at an early stage in development, often as a consequence of chromosomal translocations, a hallmark of leukaemias (4).

Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms are the consequence of the aggressive over proliferation of lymphocytes in the bone marrow overcrowding other hematopoietic cells, resulting in symptoms of bone marrow failure, such as anemia, thrombocytopenia and recurrent infections from a lack of leukocytes. Initial symptoms may include fever, fatigue, malaise...

Find Another Essay On Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

The Importance of Knowing About Cancer

1206 words - 5 pages themselves of great importance. Not only is it good to know about cancer to see the signs in your children but also it gives you an advantage over cancer. If you know treatments and the process of battling cancer, you can right away take action and have a better chance at beating it. The same as knowing where your children are every second knowing what could potential harm you or your child is also of importance. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cause and

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Essay

2091 words - 8 pages Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL. This disease is primarily when the white blood cell, WBC, making tissue releases too many undeveloped lymphocytes. The immature lymphocytes then collect in lymph tissues. The tissues swell which makes it harder for the bone marrow to produce other blood cells. If the bone marrow cannot function properly the red blood cell, RBC, count decreases causing anemia. The

Untitled

866 words - 3 pages many people each year including my grandmother who had cancer and now one of my close friends. The type of Leukemia Matt has is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), which causes his body many problems. Matt's first symptoms of Leukemia started with him filling weak and fatigued, looking pale faced, and vomiting on occasion. Matt's mother is a nurse at the Aiken Hospital, ambling her to know that something was seriously wrong with Matt. Matt's

State-Funded Stem Cell Research

2254 words - 9 pages umbilical cord and placenta, which is less dangerous (Academy of Sciences, 2009). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment has improved among adults because of advances in the supportive care of patients due to the use of allogenic stem cell transplantations and hematopoietic stem cells (Ribera, 2011). The use of hematopoietic progenitors from the umbilical cord has increased (Ribera, 2011). Additionally, allogenic stem cell treatments have been used

Cancer and Terry Tempest Williams' Refuge

1777 words - 7 pages old Sybil’s death. She died in 1966 after months of suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (www.deseretnews.com.) Sybil, who ran outside school to watch “the pink fallout clouds pass overhead,” not knowing what to expect, was diagnosed with leukemia soon after that. Her father recalled that “her body oozed and wept in a futile effort to heal itself” (deseretnews). Her parents could not bear seeing doctors drilling again and again into her

Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation: Not Beneficial for Society

1186 words - 5 pages ." Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation | The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. WebsiteCommentsLinkTagsParentheticalEditDelete "Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant." Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplant. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. WebsiteCommentsLinkTagsParentheticalEditDelete "Leukaemia: How Can Stem Cells Help? | Europe's Stem Cell Hub | EuroStemCell."EuroStemCell. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2014. WebsiteCommentsLinkTagsParentheticalEditDelete "National Cancer Institute." Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®) -. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014.

The Applications of FCM Technology In Three Different Diseases

2767 words - 11 pages comparison of two flow cytometry methodologies for monitoring minimal residual disease in a multicenter treatment protocol of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytometry.Part B, Clinical Cytometry. 78 (6), pp.365-371. Malleret B., Claser C., OngA. S. M. , Suwanarusk R., Sriprawat K., Howland S. W., Russell B., Nosten F. & Renia L. (2011) A rapid and robust tri-color flow cytometry assay for monitoring malaria parasite development

Production of anti-apoptotic Proteins by cancer cells

3411 words - 14 pages , orally bio-available Bad-like BH3 mimetic ABT-263 (Navitoclax) is synthesised and it proved complete tumor regressions in xenograft models of small-cell lung cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However the single agent alone exhibits modest or no activity against xenograft models of aggressive B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma (Tse, Shoemaker et al. 2008). A phase 1 clinical trial for ABT-263 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Children with Cancer

1425 words - 6 pages lovely brown hair and having legs that resembled toothpicks with shoes attached to the bottom. Mandy was diagnosis with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the rip old age of three but continued to smile like an angel that had just received her wings. Her mother, Aunt Joan was a quiet woman with little education and being a single mother with a sick child was not easy. Everyone could see that she loved her daughter with all of her soul

Interaction of Methemoglobin with Methotrexate

2275 words - 9 pages dihydrofolate reductase [2] an enzyme which inhibits the synthesis of new DNA, was widely used in the treatment of various cancers. Since 1985, MTX has been used as an effective drug in rheumatoid arthritis [3][4][5], psoriasis [6][7], acute lymphoblastic leukemia [8] lymphoma, head and neck cancer [9], breast cancer [10] and osteosarcoma [11]. Additionally, MTX-conjugated AuNPs distinguished by cytotoxic effects on human choriocarcinoma cells

Generation and Characterization of Mouse Aneuploid Cells

2606 words - 10 pages determined by formation of colonies in soft agar. The tumor-forming ability of the cells will then be assessed by subcutaneous injection in nude mice. A second approach to determine the role of aneuploidy in transformation will be to establish the role of aneuploidy in hematopoietic malignancy. DS individuals are highly predisposed to leukemia with a mutation in JAK2, commonly observed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (4, 10-12). I propose to

Similar Essays

Leukemia Essay

1285 words - 5 pages Myeloid Leukemia (CML) on the other hand affects myeloid cells and tends to develop slowly at first. As well as CLL, it mainly affects adults, and is a disease that is accounted for nearly 5,000 new cases each year. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) affects myeloid cells, just as CML disease. This type of disease grows quickly and occurs in both children and adults, with 13,000 cases each year. Acute Lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) Leukemia (ALL) on the other

Cardiovascular System: Leukemia Cancer (Cancer Of The Blood)

1257 words - 6 pages abnormal cells attacking and destroying normal healthy white blood cells. The four main types of leukemia cancer are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. Each cancer affects patients differently and treatments affect patients differently. The patients vary in different ages and hereditary, but doctors do not know if leukemia cancer is passed through genetics. However

Childhood Leukemia Essay

1227 words - 5 pages by performing, “cytogenetic tests, flow cytometry, and other lab tests provide more detailed information about the subtype of ALL and the patient’s prognosis. These tests help divide ALL into groups based on the of the leukemia, which takes into account,” Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL)  The type of lymphocyte (B cell or T cell) the leukemia cells come from  How mature these leukemia cells are There are 4 main subtypes

Leukemia: The Disease And The Treatment

1059 words - 4 pages . Pui, C.H., Robinson, L.L., Look, A.T. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. The Lancet. (2008). Pp 1030-1043. Leukemia (cont.) Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/leukemia/page6.htm#6howis The National Cancer Institute (07/15/2011) Treatment option overview. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/CLL/Patient/page4#Keypoint16 Cancer treatment centres of america. Leukemia treatments- Immunotherapy/ targeted drug