Adenosine Triphosphate (Atp) Essay

1197 words - 5 pages

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate and is the immediate supply of
energy for biological processes. The ATP consists of an organic
nitrogenous base, Adenosine, which is one of the four bases found in a
DNA strand, it also consists of a ribose sugar with three phosphates
joined by high energy bonds. The energy itself is stored in the form
of high-energy chemical bonds; this energy is released on hydrolysis,
i.e. by the reaction with water, in a similar way peptide bonds are
hydrolysed in proteins. ATP is adapted to is highly suited to its
function and role within living organisms as it is easily broken down
and is thus a store for immediate energy; it is also a small molecule
and can easily move around cells and through membranes.

The production of ATP is usually associated with two principalities
including respiration and mitochondria. It is common knowledge that
respiration, which happens in all living organisms, produces energy
and is expressed by the equation of:

Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

Respiration can be, aerobic, occurring in an oxygenated environment or
anaerobic, occurring in oxygen lacking environments. The latter
producing 2 molecules of ATP and the former producing between 36- 38
ATP molecules. The energy released from the respiration of glucose is
used to add inorganic phosphate to ADP, producing ATP. This is
achieved by glycolysis, krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
which are cumulatively known to be involved in aerobic cellular
respiration. As we shall see, this process makes use of co-enzymes
such as ADP and Dehydrogenases such as NAD+.

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell and involves the
production of 2 molecules of pyruvate which occurs when glucose
undergoes phosphorylation, lysis and then oxidation, yielding pyruvate
and 2 molecules of ATP along with 2 molecules of reduced NAD. In
aerobic respiration only the reduced NAD generated here enters a
mitochondrion and goes into the electron transport chair where it is
used to generate 6 molecules of ATP. Hence, the net ATP produced from
glycolysis are 8 molecules of ATP.

The next stage is krebs cycle which occurs in the matrix of the
mitochondria, the resulting product from oxdative decarboxylation of
pyruvate is progressively degraded by as series of reactions involving
four dehydrogenations, two decarboxylations and one phosphorylation.
The krebs cycle liberates 2 ATP molecules. However, most of these are
only generated in the electron transport chain in the inner membrane
of the mitochondria and the cristae, this is where ATP is generated by
transferring electrons from the reduced hydrogen acceptors, generated
by glycolysis and the krebs cycle to oxygen, via a series of electron
carriers, which undergo oxidation- reduction reactions. The hydrogen
ions produced from their removal from the reduced hydrogen acceptors
are utilised in the proton pump theory and synthesise 28 ATP molecules.
Overall, the whole...

Find Another Essay On Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Energy Essay

593 words - 2 pages fuel many biological reactions.3. ATP breakdown is coupled to a reaction that requires energy; both reactions take place at same time in same place.4. When ATP breaks down to drive reactions, some energy is lost as heat; overall reaction becomes exergonic.C. ATP: Energy for Cells1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is energy currency of cells; when cells require energy, they "spend" ATP.2. Great demand for ATP requires body to constantly produce ATP.3

Adenosine Triphosphate Essay

879 words - 4 pages . Theoretically, the energy released from respiration could be harnessed in the cell so that it can be used to do work directly. However, a much more flexible system actually occurs where exergonic reactions in all organisms are linked to the production of an intermediary molecule, ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The structure of ATP consists of the purine base, adenine, a 5C ribose and 3 phosphate [IMAGE]groups. When

AEROBIC & ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS: Of An Olympic Figure Skater

971 words - 4 pages the primary energy source. How ATP is processed, used and renewed will depend on the speed, intensity and duration in contractions of our muscles. Anaerobic is the main training for athletes in strength and endurance sports. The ATP-PC (adenosine triphosphate phosphocreatine) and the lactic acid systems are the two main energy chains comprised for these events. During intense activites, anaerobic energy is the major contributor for 1 to 3

The Contraction and Mechanism of Rabbit Muscle

889 words - 4 pages Adenosine triphosphate is a major source of energy of a cell and provides the energy for most of the energy consuming activities of the cell. The demonstration of skeletal muscle contraction was presented by A. F. Huxley, 1957. His hypothesis showed the importance of “the size of the power stroke in isometrically contracting muscle fibers” (Ferenczi 1). To better understand muscle contraction and muscle contraction’s speed under

Action of Myofibrils In Muscular Contraction and ATP as an Energy Source for Muscular Contraction

1947 words - 8 pages . When ATP binds in the cleft, the three phosphate groups from the ATP push the cleft open and dissociate the myosin from the actin. The adenosine group always remains outside of the gap. The importance of this will also be explained later in the paper. Figure 2 Myosin as a whole (A), the head (B), and the tail (C) Figure 3 The Purple and yellow regions are the light chains and the red region is the 50kD section responsible for binding to

Photosynthesis

549 words - 2 pages "energy shuttle" produced in photosynthesis is adenosine triphosphate (ATP); it either forces a reaction to proceed, or enters into reactions that need energy. ATP is converted to ADP and phosphate, and is used over and over between energy consumption and release. ADP can be phosphorylated to ATP by three methods. The first, photophosphorylation, only applies to autotrophs, since it involves light energy and a specific organelle, the

Cellular Respiration in Skeletal Muscles

1363 words - 6 pages is sugars and fats. Glucose is broken down into two different pathways: anaerobic and aerobic. Anaerobic occurs in cytoplasm and aerobic occurs in the mitochondria. Overall, these two processes produce a net of 36 ATPs. Fats are fatty acids which are broken down and converted to acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA is oxized by the citric acid cycle. Fat is used as a stored energy. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the most common type of energy used by

These notes explain some basic laws and definitions of energy in general and how organisms use energy

905 words - 4 pages - chemical activities of cellsCombination of all the exergonic and endergonicreactions that occur within the cell2 parts: Catabolism - reactions that break large molecules into smaller ones to trap energy (exergonic)Anabolism - reactions that put smaller molecules together to build larger ones (endergonic)ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)ATP powers nearly all cellular work in the body, including the nerve cells in your brain that enable you to read this!Energy

Respiration

941 words - 4 pages okay excellentMitochondria are responsible for energy production. They are also the responsible location for which respiration takes place. Mitochondria contain enzymes that help convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. Mitochondria tend to be concentrated near cellular structures that require large inputs of energy, such as the flagellum. The role of the mitochondria is

Chemotrophic Respiration and Photosynthesis

1143 words - 5 pages Cellular respiration is the ability of a cell in an organism to metabolize chemicals in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main energy molecule of the cell. There are two forms of cellular respiration. Chemotrophic respiration, which is used by animals and phototrophic respiration (a.k.a. photosynthesis) used by plants and fungi. Chemotrophic respiration requires oxygen to efficiently make ATP and gives off carbon dioxide as a

Leaf Color vs Oxygen Output

788 words - 4 pages actually benefiting the plant. Glucose is the simplest form of sugar. It gets converted into energy after it is produced by the chloroplasts. The glucose doesn’t stay around long. It gets changed into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). It’s a form of energy (R. Nave, Nov 29 2013). ATP is made in an organelle called mitochondria. Mitochondria are basically the powerhouse of the cell. So once the ATP is made it is sent all over the cell. Then the cells

Similar Essays

The Structure Of Adenosine Triphosphate, Atp

1307 words - 6 pages energy exchange in living organisms. ATP is critical in photosynthesis since it is used to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide (Tymoczko et al. 2013. p. 407). Thermodynamically unfavorable reactions can be also driven if they are coupled to ATP hydrolysis in a new reaction (Tymoczko et al. 2013. p. 250). The structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is composed of a ribose sugar molecule attached to the nucleotide base adenine on one side

Atp Structure Essay

933 words - 4 pages energy exchange in living organisms. Thermodynamically unfavorable reactions can be driven if they are coupled to ATP hydrolysis in a new reaction. The structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is composed of a three phosphate groups (in a triphosphate unit) attached to the nucleotide adenine with two phosphoanhydride bonds. The two phosphoanhydride bonds are formed by the loss of a water molecule (Tymoczko et al. 2013. p. 250). ATP is formed in

Atp Is Produced In Both Plant And Animal Cells By A Similar Process. Describe The Structural And Chemical Differences Between The Production Of Th

882 words - 4 pages not yet determined. ATP consists of a ribose sugar, an organic base and a string of phosphates. The structural and chemical differences will be discussed followed by the energy storage mechanisms. There are structural and chemical differences in the production of ATP in plant and animal cells. ATP is the molecule adenosine triphosphate which releases energy through hydrolysis. The ATP molecule loses its third phosphate group in a reaction

Energy Systems In Our Bodies Varsity College Essay

433 words - 2 pages ENERGY SYSTEMS 1. ATP-PC · Short energy bursts · 10 seconds max (no oxygen) · (Jumping, sprinting) · 2. Lactic Acid · 30 sec max, · no oxygen · (50m freestyle, 400m Run) 3. Aerobic · Longer distances · Oxygen · (Long distance running) NO OXYGEN = ANAEROBIC ATP- Adenosine triphosphate ADP- Adenosine diphosphate P- Phosphate Anaerobic Pathway – 1. ATP/PC or CP system 2. lactic Acid System Aerobic Pathway