Hegemony - leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others. Sentence: Another fortunate accident which favored the hegemony of Transylvania was the temporary collapse of Hungary's most formidable adversary, the Turk.
Caliphate - A caliphate is an Islamic state. It's led by a caliph, who is a political and religious leader. Sentence: The Caliphate under the Umayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.
Stateless Society - cultural groups in which authority is shared by lineages of equal power instead of being exercised by a central government. Sentence:
Griot - Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire. Sentence: The griot keeps the village history as an oral tradition.
Bedouin - Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian Peninsula. Sentence: The Bedouin Arabs, are practically independent, waging constant warfare among themselves and paying an uncertain tribute to the Turkish government.
Hadith - a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions. Sentence: He studied the Koran and its traditions (hadith)
Umma - the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan. Sentence: The Islamic Umma consists of Muslims from all over the world that share the same beliefs despite race, culture, and tradition.
Zakat - Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims. Sentence: The principle of Islam was that no Muslim should pay any tax other than the zakat.
Jizya - head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories. Sentence: Conquered peoples who will neither embrace Islam nor pay jizya.
Dhow - Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design. Sentence: Arab dhows helped extend trade and acquire better means of navigation.
Lateen Sails - triangle sails that were very maneuverable that could catch winds from the side and behind. Sentence: The boat suddenly was put in motion from the winds caught by the lateen sails.
Chivalry - a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word. Sentence: The Knights of the Round Table followed the code of chivalry.
Bushido - traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living. Sentence: Similar to the Knights of the Round Table and their chivalry, the samurai follow the code Bushido.
Boyar - Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts. Sentence: Boyars served as a prince’s aide and was a privileged classof rich landowners.
Serfs - a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times. Sentence: Serfs provided manual labor in their master’s land and paid dues in forms of labor in order to grow food for themselves.
Vassals - Members of the military elite who received land or a...