Essay Topic: The advantages and disadvantages of genetic manipulation.
The human understanding of Genetic Modification has seen a rapid growth within the past 50 years. Genetic Modification results in unethical conventions in an attempt for desirable traits. Cloning can be applied in a range of aspects, and be conducted for the alteration of the genetic makeup within organisms to create more ideal organisms, or as a substitute for natural reproduction. Such measures do come with consequences such as less variation along with unsafe and unethical practices.
The alteration of genetic material has been a cause for the further development of genetic modification technology. By modifying ...view middle of the document...
DNA is located throughout every cell in the body except for red blood cells, they carry the genetic makeup of individuals, and may be even used to produce children for infertile individuals. Even if both individuals are of the same gender even a biological child can be created. This technology also means a subspecies of an extinct species could be revived through cloning techniques used for dolly the sheep. By using the DNA taken from a single body cell of a female sheep, and removing the nucleus from a gamete of another female sheep, then fusing them and placing them within another sheep's uterus, Dolly the sheep was created. This process could be used for creating a subspecies of the now extinct species of the Lonesome George/ Pinta Island tortoise.
The creation of enhanced individuals results in less genetic diversity in the animals, due to repetitively using the same genes for the same results. This could mean that multiple living entities could be like each other. This also means that if one genetically modified individual is extremely susceptible to a certain disease, similar genetically modified individuals’ would also be susceptible to the disease. The survivability of those genetically modified organisms would then all be threatened; it is also a threat to their offspring as well and in humans possibly the human race. Problems from inbreeding of those individuals may also arise, causing the offspring to have increased likelihood of receiving recessive traits which may be harmful to the child.
With our current understanding of cloning, the methods used for Dolly the sheep and Glofish are highly unethical with numerous attempts ending in failure. The creation of Dolly the sheep required 277 attempts since nuclear transfer ended in failure. The highest published success rates in creating a live cloned organism is about 5% as recorded by the Humans Genetics Alert in 2004. Even now, the rate of successful results hasn’t improved much. The Journal of Reproduction and Development 2013 Volume 59, reported that within cloned mice created using the same technique used for Dolly the sheep, they had their Xist gene in an abnormal position, therefore affecting the functioning of the cloned mice. Despite using specific siRNA a method of gene knockdown to reduce the interpretation of genetic code within DNA made by gene expression, scientists failed to correct the Xist gene within female embryos. Many of these faults within cloned organisms are unpredictable which is why cloning is highly unethical and unsafe.
Cloning applies to the alteration of the genetic makeup within organisms, and the creation of identical...