Advantages and Problems for a city being a transport hub: from urban planning and governance perspective.
Transportation hub is an agglomeration of different transport modes, such as maritime, road, rail and air transport. The role of transport hub brings a lot of benefits and adverse effect to the city, which will be discussed in the later part of this essay. There are common features of transport hub. Transport hubs are usually the growth poles of the nation and region where the flow of goods, people, capital and information are facilitated. There are usually some favourable condition for developing transport hubs. However, these cities also suffered from congestion and environmental impacts.
Shanghai and Tokyo, both are regional and national transport hub, will be investigated. Both share some common characteristics, for example, they have a huge number of population, they have more than one airport. But due to different government reactions, they have different results. They pay different costs of transport hub, which they have unlike level of congestion and environmental impacts. In this report, Shanghai is transport hub in a developing country while the Tokyo is a hub in a developed country.
Brief introduction of Shanghai
Shanghai is a developing city and a transportation hub in one of the fast-growing country in the world. In 1978, the nation adopted open-door policies and the establishment of Pudong new district in 1993, which have promoted growth of the city. The role of transport hub was enhanced. The city situated in a developing country, which GDP per capita falling on developing country’s standard though the city is very much developed (World Bank, 2010). This city is a gather place of different modes of transportation, so it is a transportation hub in terms of different aspects such as maritime, railway, road and air transport. Also in both passenger and freight transport.
From the view of maritime transport, in 2012, Shanghai Port transferred 32 Million TEU, became the greatest port in the world. Apart from freight transport, the city is also hub for cruises. In 2012, there are 503 thousands of people arrived and left the port. The number of visitors of using the port had increased 52% compared to the number of visitors in 2011 (Yang, 2006). These figures showed Shanghai is a busy maritime port for both passenger and freight transportation.
Besides, from the perspective of air transport, the city is certainly the transportation hub. There are two airport in Shanghai, namely Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International airport. Though two are named as international airport, Pudong mainly operates international flights while Hongqiao mainly operates domestic flights. Some passengers will come to Hongqiao from other parts of China by domestic flights and take international flights at Pudong airport, making Shanghai becomes hourglass hub. In terms of passenger transport, Pudong...