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Advantages To Karotype Testing Essay

747 words - 3 pages

The set of chromosomes that an individual has is called the person’s karyotype. A karyotype test is one of the many important tests performed when determining a person’s gender. This test is done by collecting genetic information about a person including their chromosomes. Examining these chromosomes through karyotyping allows determining whether there are any abnormalities or structural problems and also if the person is male or female. A human has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Twenty-two of these pairs, are called autosomes, and they look the same in both males and females. But the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, is different between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.
The first step taken in karyotype test is by taking a sample of your Mitosis cells. These samples can be taken from various tissues, including bone marrow, amniotic fluid, blood, or placenta. The sample is then placed in a laboratory dish that allows the cells to grow and multiply. Then the dividing cells are stopped in metaphase by treating it with colchicine, which poisons the mitotic spindle. The cells are afterward treated with a hypotonic solution that causes their nuclei to swell and the cells to burst. Following, the nuclei are treated with a chemical fixative and are taken and stained so that the structure and number of chromosomes they contain can be viewed under a microscope. The stained sample is photographed to show the arrangement of the chromosomes. By looking at the sex chromosomes the shape, size, and numbers are determined and therefore showing the gender.
The advantage of this test is that it gives a very thorough picture of an individual's chromosomes, which shows one of the most accurate results of a person’s gender. Not only does it tell you your gender through the sex chromosomes but also the disorders that are present in your chromosomes through the autosomes numbered 1 to 22. An example of this is trisomy, monosomy and translocations. The flaw in this test is the results aren’t always true. Sometimes, a woman might have a Y chromosome where there is a genetic...

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