After decades of war in Afghanistan in late 2001, first attempts have already been made by Afghans and international organizations to consult the Afghan people on how to build capacities in pace-building which was an encouraging sign. However, the people in general are still too reluctant to speak about their suffering during the war. Instead, their current priority is to struggle for economic survival in the highly competitive post-conflict reconstruction business with its emerging social injustice. This pragmatic attitude causes a basic problem. If the past is not addressed, efforts to build a lasting peace are endangered. As lessons from other post-conflict societies have shown, national reconciliation contributes to overcoming the past and reuniting a war-divided society (Schirch, Rafiee, & Sakhi, 2013). There are several ways to bring about peace, stability and harmony in Afghanistan. This paper reviews some issues crucial for discussing and designing a strategy of national reconciliation. Moreover, for narrowing the gap between the rival perceptions there is also a need for an Afghan peace process to prepare the ground for peace-building and a future reconciliation process and implementation of an Afghan mechanism of national reconciliation including the ‘’lessons learned’’ from the post-conflict societies.
Conflict history & Structure:
There are other protracted conflicts which have also gone through different stages and seen several regimes changes. However, hardly any conflict has such a complicated history as the Afghan one. Beginning of this conflict traced back to the late 1970s when Kabul witnessed a fierce power struggle between four ideological schools such as conservative members of the royalist elite and the traditional ulema siding with the anti-reform establishment, liberal reformists of western orientations, Marxists mainly Moscow oriented communists, and Maoists all of them split in rival factions, Islamic radicals gradually emerging, who from the first time considered Islam an instrument of political change subsequently, they provided leaders and fighters for the Mujadeddin tanzims (Jarvenpaa, 2013). Ultimately, this power struggle ended in the communist coup, the Saur revolution led by the Marxist Noor Mohammad Taraki. This marked the beginning of the conflict, which soon turned into a developed guerilla war between the Moscow-backed communist regime in Kabul and the U.S armed Mujaheddin resistance. The first phase started from 1978 to 1979, the second phase from 1980 to 1989, the third phase 1989-1992, fourth phase 1992-1994, fifth phase 1994- 1996, the sixth phase 1996-2001, and the last phase 2001 until now. The transition from war to peace, from external support to Afghan responsibility has successfully begun. Yet, many obstacles still have to be overcome and many efforts are still needed to build a sustainable peace. In this regard one of the fundamental tasks of the new Afghan government and the people...