After the fall of Amanullah Khan, Habibullah Khan Kalakani ruled for a short term and then the Musahiban family ruled over Afghanistan from 1929-1978. The Musahiban family halted the social changes that Amanullah Khan wanted to make which moved it away from developing the economy, state building and modernization. The economy was the same as it was at the turn of the century. The Musahiban family followed the policy of encapsulated modernization. They only focused on the centers the countryside areas remained untouched because of the fear of rising revolts. Under the Musahbian family they did not impose any changes or taxes, especially no taxes in cash which means they made the rural economy remain untouched. This means that there was no surplus to invest in the state, the state did not do that because they had no money and the private owners didn’t do that was because everyone was a small landowner and did not have money to invest into factories. Although, today the period from 1929-78 has been marked as a period of relatively political, social and economical stability, infrastructure development, and positive neutralism, this period also experienced some domestic and foreign policy failure like royal family fractions, political stagnation, political unstable reforms and Pashtunistan foreign policy failure. However, If Amanullah Khans reforms had continued we might have been able to modernize Afghanistan. Railroads, central bank, currency, modern bureaucracy, direct taxes, capitalist development, state land was given to people, private property, constitution, established one of the first factories for producing consumer goods (these changes would have transformed Afghanistan if they had continued under Musahiban, abolished slavery and forced labor – capitalist development needs free labor).
II. Domestic successes:
During the period of Musahiban family from 1929-78, politically Afghanistan became stable. Unlike the previous periods, the Musahiban family united the country and established a relatively stable political authority within the country. During this period the resistant movement leaders either obeyed the government or were liquidated by the royal authority. Also, people like Habibullah Kalakani and Ghulam Nabi Charkhi, who were potential political threat to the royal family, were liquidated by Nadir Shah. During this period, Afghanistan enjoyed peace and constancy. Nadir’s policies of national gradualism and positive neutrality and friendship were rather effective, and enabled him to establish control over the domestic environment.
One of the most essential domestic successes during Musahiban was the Economic development. The emergence of a merchant class for the first time in Afghanistan under Majed Zabulli’s leadership was one of those successes that helped Afghanistan to modernize its economy. He putted lots of efforts and contributions to influence people by Royal patronage and the monopoly system to attract the bulk of the private...