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Afghanistan Versus Rwanda: The Process Of Developing Two Post Conflict Societies

2097 words - 8 pages

The process of developing two post conflict societies (Afghanistan vs. Rwanda)

Introduction

Mainly most of the analyses are restricted to fragile states, those states that have been highly vulnerable to serious forms of internal aggression including civil wars.
There have been more than 220 armed conflicts all over the world from 1946 to 2001. In general it includes about more than 140 civil wars, causing the death of about 20 million people and displacing about 67 million (Panić, n.d.) . As a result of combine interstates the number is even higher today; internal wars are in countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan. Because civil wars are not the only form of systematized violence and aggregation, the human costs of armed conflicts are better than data suggestion. Violence, organized crime, coup and even genocide has taken place in many countries such as Rwanda and Afghanistan.
Rwanda and Afghanistan are the two post conflict societies which have been struggling to be stabilized and peaceful so that they may go towards development. Both the countries have been through a huge unrest and war. After the wars have come to an end with the help of international community, both countries have got their constitution and established new governments. Though some people believe that the war in Afghanistan is ended, the situation shows that it is still not peaceful as different groups of insurgents, supported by the neighboring countries like Pakistan, Iran and Tajikistan, still operate terrorist activities in order to over through the government or at least destabilize the country. After the collapse of the Taliban regime, an undemocratic interim government was established with the promise that as soon as possible, a democratic government would be established. However, after a long period of 13 years, Afghan are still looking for a democratic government with democratically elected president. On the other hand, Rawanda does not face such problem though it may have some intrastate ethnic problems. The 2014 elections gave Afghans some hope to get a democratic government with properly elected president. This paper is going to compare the characteristics of their political governance and the level of corruption in these two post conflict societies.

Characteristics of governance in Rwanda

Rwanda is a democratic republic country that has a bicameral parliament. President is the head of the government who is directly selected for seven years. The parliament of this country is consisted of two houses which are; Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Chamber of Deputies has eighty members with it who come through direct and indirect elections by the population to serve for five years; fifty four out of eighty are elected by general population through comparative population representation, two out of eighty are selected to represent for the interest of young generation, one member is selected to represent disable groups...

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