The series of African – American Civil Rights movements, which stretched from 1955 to 1968, aimed at restoring the rights of the African – American people and liberating them from the social and racial discrimination. This movement changed the social and political structure of the United States. The main catch was that the movement accomplished successful results following the ‘nonviolent resistance’, establishing the fact that the Christian religion believed in peace and equality.
Birth of the Civil Rights Movements:
United States, since its foundation has endured racial inequality. The government and other major institutions were administrated by the ‘whites’ and the ‘black’ Americans lacked behind in every aspect of life.
The reconstruction period, that started after the defeat of the Confederate States of America, lasted for twelve years starting from 1865 to 1877.The elections of 1876 brought an end to this era in which the whites of the Democratic party gained political control in the south while the Republican Party, which mainly constituted of the Blacks, lost terribly because blacks were not allowed to register their votes. By the early 20th centaury, majority of the elected officials in the south were Democrats, the white domination caused increase in the violence on African Americans and they were detained from their rights of education, employment and religion.
The consequence was the emergence of the ‘Jim Crow’ system which suppressed and violated the racial and social rights of the African Americans. The conditions in the North and West were comparatively better so most of the African people seek refuge in migration.
Previously, the Civil rights movement of 1955 – 1968, with the help of organizations like NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) had made successful efforts at litigation, but these movements constituted of conventional strategies. By 1955, the policy of ‘Massive Resistance’ was employed which followed the pattern of non-violent resistance in the form of boycotts and sit-ins .Some of the successful movements include: Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955 – 1956) in Alabama, Greensboro sit-in (1960) in North Carolina and Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama.
The prominent leaders of the Movement include Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Joseph Lowry, Fred Shuttlesworth, Malcolm X, Rosa Parks and W.E.B Du Bois.
Voter Registration Categorization
One of the major focuses of the entire movement was to reinstate the political voting rights of the African American people and include their representations in the government organizations.
The alteration of the Mississippi law in 1890 included some provisions such as poll taxes, literacy tests and residency requirements which made registration for the black people close to impossible; as majority were not stable, financially as well as educationally. Some prominent local Black leaders tried to convince...