Effects of intrusive worrying in Primary insomnia
An examination of primary insomnia and normal sleepers was conducted to inquire if intrusive worrying serves as consequences of sleep disturbance. According to Medscape, Primary insomnia is sleeplessness that is not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) set forth five diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia. The main symptom according to the DSM-IV-TR is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or suffering from non restorative sleep, for at least one month. About.com defines intrusive thoughts as thoughts that are unwanted, feel uncontrollable, and often pertain to disturbing or distressing themes, such as: worrying constantly about something bad will happen.
Primary insomnia patients engage in a fury of thought battle at night. These thought battles are likely to stimulate additional worrisome behavior and maintain sleep disturbance. A frequent answer giving by patients with intrusive thinking is “my mind keeps racing.” There is widespread acceptance that intrusive thinking at bedtime characterizes Primary insomnia (e.g. Borkovec, 1982). Despite evidence of; mental events disrupting sleep, Primary insomnia patients description of pre-sleep thoughts as intrusive, uncontrollable and negative (Harvey, 2000; Kuisk, Bertelson, & Walsh, 1989), and attributing sleeping difficulties to intrusions (Broman & Hetta, 1994; Espie, Brooks, & Lindsay, 1989; Lichstein & Rosenthal, 1980; Nicassio, Mendlowitz, Fussell, & Petras, 1985), theoretical explanations for why intrusive pre-sleep thinking characterizes primary insomnia remain lacking (Waine, Broomfield, Banham, & Espie, 2008).
An exploratory study was conducted to explore the presence of metacognitive beliefs in primary, to develop metacognitive beliefs of primary insomnia questionnaire and to gather initial data on psychometric properties of the scale, using primary insomnia and normal sleeping participants. Firm hypotheses did not need to be named because of the exploratory nature of the research (Waine, Broomfield, Banham, & Espie, 2008). The research began with field interviews with individuals with primary insomnia and normal sleepers to develop a groundwork item pool. The participants for the fieldwork were recruited via University e-mail. The target population was individuals with ‘difficulties sleeping at night’ or ‘good sleepers’ and between 16 and 65 years old. Primary insomnia participants met strict research diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia disorder (Edinger et al., 2004). Normal sleeping participants met RDC criteria for ‘normal sleepers’ (Edinger et al., 2004). Telephone screening was used to determine participant suitability. After the telephone screening participant were given receipt of consent. Individuals that met all requirements attended a face-to-face meeting were remaining...