Age Of Scholarship. Essay

789 words - 3 pages

Age of ScholarshipTraditional history speaks of the Zhou conquering the Shang and proclaiming a mandate of heaven. The Zhou justified their conquest by citing the moral depravity and excesses of the last Shang King. They set up a network of kin relationship (zongfai) in various regions, which formed the basis of a new unified state.During the Period of the Warring States, in the late centuries of the Zhou dynasty. Three school came upon Chinese history that tried to influence their ideas to the government. they were: Confucianism, Daoism(Taoism), Legalism.Confucianism comes from a chinese thinker named Kong Fuzi "Master Philosopher Kong". Confucius believed that the best way to promote good government was to fill official positions with individual positions who were both well educated and extraordinarily conscientious. Confucianism emphasized on several qualities such as ren, li, and xiao. Ren means attitude of kindness and benevolence or a sense of humanity. Li is a sense of propriety, which called for individuals to behave on conventionally appropriate fashion. And that people should treat each other with respect. Xiao is where the family value comes, and shows how people should treat themselves and others inside the family. Confucianist were more about values that would lead them to be greater persons in life and to have respect for one another as if they were family. Two later disciples of Confucius-Mencius and Xunzi- illustrate especially well the ways in which Confucius thought lent it self to elaboration and adaptation.Mencius (372-289 b.c.) who was a spokesman for the Confucian School traveled through out China, consulting with rulers and offering advice on political issues. He emphasis mostly on the Virtue of ren which encouraged harmony and cooperation. Though the politicians and critics thought his ideas were naive and that they would have a hard time to succeed in the real world.Xunzi (298-238 b.c.) served as a government administrator. He considered strong social discipline the best means to bring order to society. Xunzi emphasis on the virtue Li, he advocated the establishment of clear, well-publicized standards of conducts that would set limits on the pursuit of individual interests and punish those who neglected their obligation to the larger society.They all believed it was possible to improve human beings and restore order to society.Confucians involved themselves in society: they sought government positions and made conscientious efforts to...

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