A variety of conceptual frameworks were used to research the aging nursing workforce. The theoretical model of Organizational and Personal Factors and Outcomes, developed by Schaefer and Moos (1991), was one context used during this review of literature. This framework suggests that the personal system as well as work stressors affect the association between the organizational system and work morale and performance (Atencio, Cohen, & Gorenberg, 2003). This model suggests that the individual system as well as work stressors influence the relationship involving the organizational scheme and work morale and performance. Occupation stressors combined with organizational and individual system factors induce coping responses and the result of retaining the older nurse (Schaefer & Moos, 1991).
Another theoretical model used was the Conceptual Model of Intent to Stay by Boyle et al. (1999). This model describes four variables that shape a nurse’s plan to stay in employment. These variables consist of leadership characteristics, nurse characteristics, system characteristics, and work characteristics. The primary concentration for this model was to research the influence that leadership uniqueness has on a nurse’s intention to stay employed versus retiring. The outcomes showed that control over nursing practice, situational stress, and the manager characteristics had implicit effects on older nurse intention to remain employed (Cranley & Tourangeau, 2005).
Karasek and Theorell’s Demand-Control Model (1990) was an additional conceptual framework noted in the review of literature on the ageing nursing workforce. This representation implies that intense job strain and decision-making opportunity contributes to work tension and leads to pessimistic health consequences (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). These consequences have a direct correlation to job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and the mental health of nurses, which in turn can lead to an exit out of the profession of nursing (Letvak, 2005).
The ability to retain nurses within an organization requires influence and providing an environment of connectivity amongst the organization and the nurse. Research indicates that persons who feel a sense of association to their company are less disposed to leave their job freely (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erex, 2001). Mitchell et al. (2001) introduced the model of job embeddedness, which evolved from the unfolding model of turnover, and characterized the reasons that employees depart organizations. These authors stated that three facets affect the extent to which individuals fell rooted in their organizations collective network.
The first variable reflects the degree to which employees feel associated to other people and activities within the organization. The longer a nurse is employed within a system, the more linkages that are made between the individual nurse and others. By offering alternative ways in allowing these nurses to...