China, Japan and Korea have lots of similarities; such as they start economic development and growth within a short period of time, which is 1960s of Japan, Korea in1970s and China had economic reform since 1978. They have successfully controlled their population growth which population transition from high birth rate to low birth rates in a short period of time. Population aging is one of the social issues which they are facing. This essay will examine their differences and the impact or significant toward their neighbouring countries.
Level of aging population
People who are above 65 year old in China, Japan and Korea in the proportion of their country’ total population is 8.87%, 23.1% and 11.3% respectively in 2010. The aging rate in 2000 is 6.96 %, 17.3% and 7.3%, respectively. Compare with the record in 2000 and 2010, there are increases of 1.91, 5.8 and 4 percentage points. The growth of aging rate of Japan and South Korea is far beyond China which more than the twice of China’s. However, in terms of aging speed, Korea is ageing faster than Japan and China. It can be seen that time required in doubling the proportion of elderly population from 7% to 14% of China and Japanese were 25 years and 24 years respectively, while 17 years in Korea. Japan was the first country among China, Japan and Korea in facing aging problem when they were in 1970s but China and South Korea almost simultaneously entered an aging society in 2000s. Situation in Japan is quite serious as it caused labor shortage; the government has encouraged elderly continue to work until 70 years old. Also, aging population in China has China characteristics which it is more serious in the eastern part.
Life expectancy of elderly
There is a large gap of average life expectancy among three countries although their average life expectancy for men and women are over 70 years old. Both Japanese and South Korean women average life expectancy has reached 86 years and 84 years, but Chinese women live only for 75 years. Compared with the record in 2000, the average Japanese life expectancy has increased by one to two years, and the average life expectancy of South Korean has increased by about 5 years and 4 years respectively. Seems Japan and Korea have better economic development than China.
Difference in the stage
Other difference is when three countries entered into an aging society, only China in the less developed stage. Evidence is when China entered into an aging society, its per capita GDP is about 3800 dollars, while Japan, South Korea has already reached $ 10000, and there is a big gap between China and Japan and Korea in the level of economic development. It could be said that China is old before rich but other two are rich before old. The situation in China is like they are developing country but having the problem of developed country. Therefore, China government would be more difficult than other two countries in dealing with it.
Difference in background