Humanistic theories emerged in 1950s. We have two types of humanistic theories, the first one is Person-centred theory by Carl Rogers which is based on how people see them-selves in relation to their personal experience and the second theory is Self-actualisation by Abraham Maslow which is based on the needs that motivate people. In this paper both theories will be described in detail and also they will be evaluated.
1.2.1) ROGERS’ PERSON-CENTRED THEORY
Self-concept it is the collection of experiences and beliefs about one self, and how these experiences, beliefs interact to form a picture according to individual’s perspective what kind of a person an individual is. This includes physical and mental capabilities, appearance, strengths and weaknesses. (Weiten, 2014).
Beliefs that favour motivate us. Self-concept is also the way we see our-selves and how we present our-selves according to our beliefs towards the world and we are aware of this beliefs. These beliefs and our uniqueness shape our behaviour (Steinberg, 2006).
For instance: Tom sees him-self as the great dancer, his ability to dance and his belief of being a great dancer will display a behaviour of a person with high confidence of dancing.
Self-concept is mostly based on personal experience and the experience can influence self-concept of an individual. People twist their experience to be the way they desired it to be, i.e. the experience to be favourable or great. What we people does cause INCONGRUENCE which is the gap between reality (experience) and self-concept (Wietren, 2014).
Incongruence happens mostly when a person had a bad experience and does not admit it. You will find that the way a person sees him-self does not match with the experience.
Congruence is when the self-concept (how an individual sees him-self) relate with reality or experience (Wieten, 2014).
1.2.2) Development of the Self
This is where childhood experience greatly influences self-concept. Childhood can promote congruence or incongruence between once self-concept and reality (Wieten, 2014). In childhood individuals need love and acceptance from others. Parents make their love conditional or unconditional.
Unconditional affection, children do not necessarily need to change unworthy experiences because they know they are worthy of love or affection. For example children with high confidence, brave children who would present their speech in front of millions of people. Conditional affection promote congruence, children do not distort their experience to feel worthy because they believe that they are worthy.
Conditional affection, children mostly change unworthy experiences because they might be not accepted because they believe love is conditional from others. They will twist their experience to feel worthy of acceptance. Conditional affection promotes incongruence, for example children who lacks confidence and who wait to be told what to do.
1.2.3) Anxiety and Defence