What Were Some of the Causes and Effects of Both the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in Great Britain?
Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. It is used historically to refer primarily to the period in British history from the middle of the 18th century to the middle of the 19th century. (*Webster's Deluxe Internet Encyclopaedia)
The Industrial Revolution was a time of remarkable change, from hand tools and handmade items, to products, which were mass-produced by machines. Workers became more ...view middle of the document...
Many machines were known of before now, and there were sizable factories using them, but these were the exceptions rather than the rule. Wood was the only fuel, and water and wind were the only power source for these early factories.
At the beginning of the 18th Century the population expanded and the wealthier inhabitants demanded enhanced additional goods. In the productive process, coal began to substitute wood. There were basic steam engines derived to drain water and raise the coal from the mines. The key development of the Industrial Revolution was the use of steam for power, and the significantly enhanced steam engine invented in 1769 by the late James Watt marked the high point in this development. Cotton textiles were the foremost industry early in the Industrial Revolution.
John Kay's fly shuttle invented in 1733, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1770, Richard Arkwright's water frame in 1769 (same year as the steam engine) and Samuel Crompton invented the mule in 1779, which combined the features of the jenny and the frame, and lastly Edmund Cartwright's power loom, patented 1783, made a tremendous increase in output. The presence of large quantities of coal and iron in propinquity in Britain was an influential factor in its hasty trade development.
The use of coke in iron production had far-reaching effects. From the early 1700's the coal mining industry had become principal in significance, and the Black Country appeared in England at the same time that Lancashire and Yorkshire were being transformed into the greatest textile centres of the world.
Factories and industrial towns soon sprang up. Canals and roads were built, and the dawn of the railroad and the steamship widened the market for man-made goods. The Bessemer process made a gigantic contribution, for it was largely responsible for the extension of the use of steam and steel that were the two primary factors of industry in the middle of the 19th century. Chemical and mechanical innovations played an important part in the vast changes of the industrial revolution.
The Industrial Revolution didn't end in the mid-1800s. New periods came in with electricity and the gas engine. Nonetheless, by 1850 the transformation fashioned by the revolution was consummate, in that commerce had become a leading factor in the world's development and therefore, existence.
Navvies were the men who actually built the railways. The building of the railways was very labour intensive. At one stage during the 19th Century or (C19th), one in every 100 who worked in this nation was a navvy. The word "navvy" is derived from the word navigator. By the middle of the 19th century there were 25 thousand navvies throughout the country. As railways were a vital component of the Industrial Revolution, the work of the navvies may possibly also have been considered essential.
The mass of the railway construction had to be completed by hand. The thousands of kilometres of rail lines that were...