This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Albedo Modification Potential In European Cities

2884 words - 12 pages

Earth currently transitions from a mostly rural to a mostly urban planet; from 2000 until 2030 the urbanized areas will nearly triple (Seto et al. 2012). The use of dark building materials, such as asphalt and concrete, leads to a lower albedo in urbanized areas than in natural environment (Rosenzweig et al. 2011), fostering local and global warming. In turn, the increase in urban albedo might support climate stabilization efforts (REF). Here we investigate the potential effect of the increase in albedo in a representative set of European cities relying on three metrics: a) instantaneous radiative forcing; b) urban cooling; c) reduction in mortality. We find a distinct but surprising geographical variation of the radiative forcing potential. Central European cities can as effectively change radiative forcing as Southern European cities, reflecting their sometimes relatively larger urban area. However, the more local metrics of urban cooling and especially the resulting health impact display the highest benefits of albedo modifications in Southern European cities, emphasizing the need for a geographically stratified albedo policies to maximize benefits.
Mitigating and adapting to climate change is one of the grand challenges of our times (GEA 2012). As on international level progress in addressing climate change remains stuck in complicated negotiations (Edenhofer et al. 2013), cities might be the appropriate spatial scale to address multi-faceted challenges such as climate change (Barber, 2013). Albeit cities’ decision makers reluctantly react to top-down imposed mitigation and adaptation plans (Reckien et al. 2014), they successfully implement local measures pursuing co-benefits and cost-savings deriving by climate change mitigations options (Kousky and Schneider 2003). However, while the efforts of climate change mitigation remain local, benefits on global scale would be spurious and likely any single city will hardly leave any measurable impact on it.
Here, we focus on albedo increase, as a low-to-zero cost option for climate change mitigation on municipal level. We investigate the effect of the increase in albedo in rooftops and roads aiming to deliver information for the delineation of local and European science-based climate-mitigation and adaptation policies. Since most of rooftops and road areas are located in the northern hemisphere, in particular in Europe and in northern America (Jacobson and Ten Hoeve, 2012), we evaluate the effect of albedo modifications in a large sample of European cities. We used peculiar climatological characteristics of cities to allow for a geographically explicit and morphologically informed evaluation of the potential effects of the increase in urban albedo on climate. Although scientific efforts have already been conducted to evaluate the effect on climate of the change in urban albedo focusing on small and global scale (e.g., Georgescu et al. 2012, Oleson et al. 2010), according to our knowledge no...

Find Another Essay On Albedo Modification Potential in European Cities

Paint the World White Essay

1346 words - 6 pages paint their roofs white. I think white is pretty. If all vehicles used cool colours then they could cut down their air conditioning and we would have a great reduction in energy," Professor Chu says. The main concept of his idea is that white coloured surfaces would reflect back 80% of the visible radiation back into space, instead of only 20% on darker surfaces. (Green Packs, 2009) Such measures aim to increase the earth’s Albedo. The earth’s

Can We Fix Our Planet? Essay

2678 words - 11 pages remove the greater amount of carbon dioxide we allow to exist in our atmosphere (National Geographic, paragraphs 3-5). A very important contributor is a natural process called albedo. Albedo rates are the percentage of the sun's energy that get reflected back to outer space. Every surface of the Earth has an albedo rate; fresh snow has an albedo rate of 80-90%, grass and forests are 10-30%, bodies of water varies due to the position of the sun with

A Heated Debate On ThePolar Vortex

633 words - 3 pages , unleashing arctic storms at latitudes that are typically warm. “When the Polar Vortex — a ring of winds circling the Arctic — breaks down, this allows cold air to spill south, affecting the eastern United States and other regions. This can result in a warmer-than-average Arctic region continents and colder temperatures that may include severe winter weather events on the North American and European.” (Overland) Scientists are currently having a

An Analysis of Climate Change and the Possible Solutions

3379 words - 14 pages understanding of the causes and effects of climate change and its related impact on human well-being. The problem of climate change is due to the existing and potential impacts of increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and further warming of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere (Cherian, 2012). Major climate change impacts include the increase in global warming, extreme weather events, heat waves, forest fires, and glacial retreat. The

Causes of the Renaissance

625 words - 3 pages The causes of European the Renaissance are many, each very important. However, there are three which are the most significant: The rise of cities, an increase in public education, and the realization of the corruption of the church, which at that time dominated society. These causes were linked in many ways.Cities began to become larger and a more popular place to live in the early fourteenth century. People, namely surfs, began moving out of

Vulnerability of evapotranspiration to urbanisation: a multi-criteria decision-making and artificial neural network approach

1450 words - 6 pages In recent years large-scale conversions of land use have been taking place worldwide to sustain the ever-growing population. As a result, parameters such as vegetation type, air temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and movement of the wind have been markedly affected. Many studies have examined the impact of urbanisation on temperature or relative humidity, but few have explored whether or not potential evapotranspiration (PET) is

Aerosol Cloud Interaction

4416 words - 18 pages the cloud albedo effect, but in contrast to previous assessments, no longer distinguish the resultant forcing. Note that ERFaci includes potential radiative adjustments to the cloud system associated with aerosol-cloud interactions but does not include adjustments originating from aerosol-radiation interactions (ERFari). Figure 7 shows a schematic of many of the processes. Figure 7: Schematic depicting the myriad aerosol-cloud-precipitation related

Genetically Modified Organisms

717 words - 3 pages genetically modified food from the U.S. or any other country. This issue was brought before the World Trade Organization; they determined that not allowing modified food into the country simply created an unnecessary obstacle in international trade. Consequently, genetic modification within agriculture is an issue of strong debate within the United States, the European Union, and some other countries. Another very controversial issue is outcropping which

Contribution of Deforestation and Degradation to Climate Change

703 words - 3 pages on global warming: Ancillary benefits are not the only reason why there is more to forests than their mere carbon content. Forests intervene in at least three different manners :- • Greenhouse gases: the most evident impact of cutting down trees is to release their carbon content into the atmosphere in the form of greenhouse gases. Keeping this carbon in the wood therefore reduces global warming. • Albedo: forests tend to be darker than other

Impact of Global Warming on the Ocean

1829 words - 8 pages Arctic ice has melted away due to increased surface air and ocean temperatures (Farmer 9). Also, the accumulated area loss is approximately a third of continental US. Although, melting of sea ice does not directly contribute to sea level rise because this ice is already floating on the ocean, it contributes to sea level rise in another indirect way. First, the ice’s albedo effect has a major role in reflecting sunlight. Albedo is surface

hrm 310

1454 words - 6 pages five - discussions on how the methods used in the modification can affect the organization's practices.Changes to ImplementKudler's Fine Foods sales division actions relating to the sale of wine, sale of exceptional food items, and customer's registering for the Kudlers wine appreciation courses are unsatisfactory. A potential modification is under consideration that will offer extra training to the current sales reps in the sales department

Similar Essays

Multi Scale Analysis Of Albedo Modification Potential In European Cities

2904 words - 12 pages a representative set of European cities relying on instantaneous radiative forcing (IRF), urban cooling and the consequent effect on mortality, ozone formation and energy use. The results show that the increases in albedo in compact cities can have a relevant cooling potential and reduce mortality, providing a crucial incentive for local governments to engage in corresponding policies. But effects vary with urban form. Sprawling cities may have

Decreasing Albedo In European Cities Essay

2589 words - 10 pages with bright ones and a wise planning of future urban development can increase albedo and support climate stabilization efforts. Here we investigate the potential effect of the increase in albedo on the instantaneous change in radiative forcing in a representative set of European cities. We find a distinct but surprising geographical variation of the potential. Southern European cities have highest albedo mitigation potential; but Scandinavian

The Extent Of Democratic Deficit In The European Union And Potential Remedies To The Problem

2078 words - 9 pages , The European parliament is too weak, there are no European elections, the EU is too distant and policy drift” , may authors such as Follesdal believe that these factors show clearly that there is a deficit of democracy in the EU. I would like to now assess these factors and explain how in my opinion there is a democratic deficit in the EU. One of the biggest reasons in my opinion for the lack of democratic legitimacy in the EU is as a result of

Demographic Transition From Rural To Urban Areas

2637 words - 11 pages albedo in a representative set of European cities relying on instantaneous radiative forcing (IRF), urban cooling and the consequent effect on mortality, ozone formation and energy use. Apart from any geographical distinction, cities show that the increases in albedo in compact cities have a cooling potential and may provide better living conditions being motivating for local governments. Besides, wide cities may have a better potential on IRF