This topic hopes to explore whether alcohol consumption, besides possibly being a deviant behavior with regards to Botswana’s morality as a conservative nation, has adverse effects and costs to the overall economy and health of the country. Whether increasing the alcohol laws and levies as remedial measures are the right or most beneficial and inexpensive modes of action in trying to deter such a health epidemic, if it is indeed such. If not, what cost analyzed counteractive measures can be employed that will preserve the economy of the country while also improving the people’s health when implemented. In addition, it will also look at the consequences of the recent implementation of the ...view middle of the document...
5. Are the interventions employed actually counteracting alcohol and tobacco use and thus positively affecting health?
6. If the negatives outweigh the positives, with regard to the impact of the counteractive measures on the health and the economy, what other beneficial implementations can be employed?
In previous years the level of alcohol consumption and tobacco use in Botswana seemed to have reached very high proportions. By 2005 the total adult per capita alcohol consumption level for drinkers was recorded at 26.7 litres of pure alcohol per person per year (Botswana Mortality, 2014). A 30% prevalence rate of alcohol consumers over a 12month period was recorded for 2007, with a 20.9% prevalence rate of weekly heavy episodic drinking for males and 4.4% for females (Botswana Mortality, 2014). In 2010 the youth rate for tobacco product users was 23.6%, with general smokers of cigarettes at 14.3%, while daily tobacco smokers of cigarettes were recorded at 8% in 2009 (Botswana Mortality, 2014). Such records draw concern since the use of alcohol and tobacco has been related to a wide range of physical, mental, and social problems.
In terms of the health issues associated. Alcohol consumption has been said to; weaken the immune system – enabling infections by pathogens causing pneumonia and tuberculosis; lead to intentional and unintentional injury; cause cardiovascular diseases; and prime psychosocial issues such as violence, and child neglect and abuse (World Health Organization, 2011). The total number of deaths possibly caused by alcohol consumption was estimated to be 2.25 million in 2004 (World Health Organization, 2011). The quality of alcoholic beverages may also impact health and mortality especially when homebrewed or illegally produced alcoholic beverages are contaminated with methanol or lead (World Health Organization, 2011). Tobacco use has been said to kill approximately 5.4 million people worldwide each year carrying with it the burden of infectious and chronic diseases (Tumwine, 2011). Deaths are said to be possibly attributable to lung cancer, vascular diseases i.e. ischaemic heart disease, and tuberculosis (Sitas,Urban, Bradshaw, Kielkowski, Bah, & Peto, 2004).
According to the World Health Organization (2011), the lower the level of economic development a country has, the higher the mortality, and burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol consumption. Additionally, the lower the individual socioeconomic status of the people within a country, the higher the alcohol disease burden attributable to that country (World Health Organization, 2011). Such a case could also be attributable to the burden of tobacco health issues. Botswana is an upper middle income developing nation (World Health Organization, 2011) where the main provider of health care services is the Botswana government (World Health Organization, 2009). Therefore the brunt of the costs of alcohol and tobacco related health issues falls to the...