Alexander Ii's Title As Tsar Liberator

1425 words - 6 pages

Alexander II's Title as Tsar Liberator

Amid the Crimean War克里米亞戰爭 of 1854-56, Alexander II阿歷山大二世
succeededç¹¼ä½ to the throneçš‡ä½ of the Romanov Dynastyç¾…æ›¼è«¾å¤«çš‡æœ of Czarist
Russia. Russia was finally defeated. He saw hopes of Russia's recovery
in reforms. During his reign在ä½æœŸé–“ in 1855-81, Alexander II carried out
a broad reform programme, covering the Emancipation of Serfs解放農奴,
establishment of zemstva地方議會, judicialå¸æ³•, educational, economic and
military reforms as well as relaxation放寬 of press censorship報刊檢查.
Mosse莫斯 named him the "Czar Liberator沙皇解放者". Yet the failure of the
reforms led to revolutionary plots陰謀 and he was even assassinated被暗殺
in 1881.

From the lessons教訓 of Russia's defeat in the Crimean War, Alexander II
concluded that the root of many Russian problems was the outdated
serfdom農奴制度. Both Czars Alexander I 阿歷山大一世 (1801-25) and Nicholas
Iå°¼å¤æ‹‰ä¸€ä¸– (1825-55) had condemned譴責 this system. Owing to political
crises (frequent peasant riotsæš´å‹•), humanitarianism人é“主義, liberalism, as
well as needs of military, industrial and agricultural developments,
the "Czar Liberator" issued the Emancipation Edict of Serfs 解放農奴詔令 in
1861.

By the Edict, 34.4% of the Russian population was freed. The
government bought both lands and serfs from landlords. Mirs公社 were set
up to manage the serfs. Yet ex-serfså‰è¾²å¥´ were required to repayå„Ÿé‚„ the
redemption money贖身費 for 49 years with interest. Besides, they needed
to shoulderè‚©è² èµ· the soul taxéˆé­‚稅 and pay rents for the lands. Before
clearing all the debts, no ex-serf could leave the mir.

The Emancipation, however, brought about a host很多 of problems. The
ex-serf not only failed to get outright立刻的 ownership of the land but
shouldered a lot of financial burdens. The land was also going to be
sliced up分拆 to all the sons of an ex-serf. A rise in the population
hence meant a decrease in the size of the land strip那片土地 that the next
generation of an ex-serf could get. Thus, the ex-serf had little
incentiveå‹•æ©Ÿ to improve farming as the land would shrinkç¸®å° in size
during the next land distribution. Productivity failed to keep pace
with the rapid population growth. In addition, the lands which
landlords had sold to the mir were infertileä¸è‚¥æ²ƒ and limited in number.
During natural disasters, government reliefæ•‘æ¿Ÿ remained inadequateä¸è¶³.
Owing to hard life, many peasant riots happened in the rural areas.

Worst still, many of the rural youth disliked inheriting繼承 the burdens
of the redemption money and soul tax. They formed some rebelliouså抗性
organizations. Anarchists無政府主義者 and Nihilists虛無主義者 were good examples.
Bakuninå·´å¤éˆ...

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