Alfred Nobel Essay

2760 words - 11 pages

Alfred Nobel föddes i Stockholm 21 oktober år 1833 och dog i San Remo 10 december 1896. Han efterlämnade en förmögenhet samt ett testamente, som gjorde hans namn världsberömt. Släkten Nobel, ursprungligen Nobelius, kommer från östra Nöbbelöv i Kristianstad län och är känd sedan 1600-talet.Immanuel Nobel, född 1801 och dog 1872, var uppfinnare och industriman. Han levde några decennier i S:t Petersburg, Ryssland, där han bland annat konstruerade undervattensminor, som användes i Krimkriget. Han byggde också upp en omfattande maskintillverkning. Immanuel Nobel hade fyra söner: Robert, Ludvig, Alfred och Emil. Alla var tekniskt begåvade. Robert och Ludvig bildade "Naftabolaget Bröderna Nobel", som utvann petroleum vid Baku. Det blev ett av det största industriföretagen i Ryssland. Ludvig var dessutom en av Rysslands mest framgångsrika producenter av krigsmateriel. Alfred föddes i Stockholm och kom i nioårsåldern till S:t Petersburg där han växte upp. Han gjorde studieresor till olika länder och läste ett år kemi i Paris. Han blev tidigt intresserad av sprängämnen och utvecklade sig till uppfinnare.Alfred Nobels grundläggande uppfinning var initialtändning med tändhatt, som lösgjorde sprängkraften hos nitroglycerin och andra explosiva ämnen. Nobel gjorde cirka tusen uppfinningar och tog patent på cirka trehundra av dem. För att nå resultat var han beredd att ta risker. Alfred Nobels intresse för nitroglycerin startade i Paris och han fortsatte att experimentera i S:t Petersburg. Efter Krimkriget, som varade mellan 1853 och 1856, flyttade Alfreds föräldrar Immanuel och Andrietta samt Alfreds yngste bror Emil till Sverige. Immanuel hade lyckats med sina minor och tjänat en hel del pengar. Han respekterades till och med av den brittiska flottan. Han bosatte sig på Heleneborgs gård i Stockholm. Hösten 1863 kom Alfred Nobel till Stockholm.Han fortsatte att experimentera på Heleneborg i ett uthus, som inreddes till ett laboratorium. En dag i september skedde en stor katastrof. Hela området skakades av en explosion, som sprängde laboratoriebyggnaden i bitar. Närliggande hus skadades, tryckvågen krossade rutor på långt håll. Fem människor dog: en ung teknolog, en springpojke, en tjänsteflicka, en förbipasserande arbetare och Alfred Nobels tjugoårige bror Emil. Orsaken till olyckan ansågs vara, att Emil och teknologen hade gjort försök med att rena nitroglycerin. Provet exploderade och antände det lager av sprängämnen som fanns i laboratoriet. Emil och teknologen kände inte till nitroglycerinets oerhörda känslighet.Alfred Nobel var i närheten och såg allting, men inte...

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