Ali Paper

1007 words - 5 pages

For the random node distribution, the nodes are randomly placed on the network area as illustrated in Figure (3.5). They are placed according to a particular probability distribution function (PDF), such as linear distribution, Poisson’s distribution, etc. For example, in a linear distribution, the x and y positions of a node are calculated as follows:
x = X• (3.8)
y = Y• (3.9)
Where X and Y are the length and width of the network area, and  is a random number uniformly selected between 0 and 1 (0≤<1).
One important point that must be carefully considered using random node distribution is to make sure that initially each node within the network should have at least one neighboring node.

Semi-regular node distribution
In this distribution, the network area is divided into equal size zones across the length and the width of the network, and then, the node location is randomly determined within each zone using Eqns. (3.8) and (3,9) with X and Y are replaced by the Xz and Yz, where Xz and Yz are the length and width of the zone. Figure (3.6) shows an example of semi-regular node distribution.

As it can be seen in Figure (3.6), in semi-regular distribution, the node first-hop neighbors neither fixed as in the regular-grid distribution nor totally unpredictable as in the random distribution. Thus, it is believed that this distribution is more suitable in demonstrating the performance of the NWTD algorithm. The C++ implementation of semi-regular node distribution (SemiRegular) is given in Appendix I.
In all distribution, two nodes i and j are considered to be connected or first-hop neighbors if the Euclidean distance between these two nodes (r) is less than or equal to radio transmission range of the node (R), where r is given by:
(3.10)
(2) Algorithm module
In this module, the NWTD algorithm described in this chapter is implemented. It is important to know at this stage that the master node concept described in Section 3.2.1 is not implemented as it was explained, instead, during the node initialization stage each node is assigned a certain initial trust value. In particular, the initial trust can be determined using one of the following procedures:
(1) All nodes are assigned an equal pre-defined initial trust value between 0 and 1. For example all nodes are assigned an initial trust value of 0.8.
(2) Each node on the network is assigned a random initial trust value between 0 and 1, which is determined using a linear or non-linear PDFs. For example, for linear distribution, the following simple equation is implemented in MANSim:
Ti,j =  (3.11)
Where Ti,j is the trust of node j as determined by node i and  is a random number uniformly selected between 0 and 1 (0≤<1) (Hu et al, 2003; Theodorakopoulos & Baras, 2004).
(3) Computational module
MANSim calculates a number of network performance measures, such as: network reachability (RCH), number of retransmission...

Find Another Essay On Ali Paper

Description of Aga Shahid Ali as a Daisporic Poet

1881 words - 8 pages This paper attempts to study the diasporic dimension of Indian diasporic writer late Aga Shahid Ali who emigrated from Kashmir to America. Aga Shahid Ali narrates the loss of his homeland due to enforced migration and rexhibit the original exilic resonance of diasporic experience. In his poetic collection ‘the country without a post office’, the poet articulates diasporic experience of exile, loss, pain and creates possibilities of Kashmiri

Muhammad Ali Essay

1810 words - 7 pages A prodigious talent in the ring, Muhammad Ali’s greatest battle ensued outside the ropes amidst a backdrop of the Vietnam War and a steamrolling civil rights movement during the turbulent 1960’s. Were it not for Ali standing up for his religious beliefs and the plight of black people in America by refusing entry in the Army in 1967, Ali would not be the symbol of humanitarianism he is today, respected and recognized the world over. Had he not

Muhammad Ali

1261 words - 5 pages heavyweight boxing champion of the world, Muhammad Ali, spoke out powerfully and very visibly in criticizing the war and the drafting of unwilling men to fight in it. Although Ali was usually a heavy favorite in the ring, he was used to being an underdog in his life. Ali was often ridiculed for being an African American Muslim, and many didn’t heed either his ideas based on his religion or the color of his skin. As Thomas Hauser captured in his

Muhammad Ali

1601 words - 6 pages Muhammad Ali Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. later known as Muhammad Ali, was a black boxer, and was proud of it. Many African Americans were ashamed of their color, but Ali was different. He was the first boxer to win the Heavyweight Championship 3 different times. He had a great personality and was liked by the people. During his life, he made big decisions that changed the course of his life completely. Muhammad Ali's journey through life was

Muhammad Ali

3014 words - 12 pages Muhammad Ali1 Muhammad Ali is one of the most recognized faces on planet Earth; known not just for being one of the best fighters in the history of boxing, but for being one of the most knowledgeable persons of the twentieth century. Ali wasn't always known by that name though, he was born Cassius Marcellus Clay on January 17, 1942 in Louisville, Kentucky, him and his younger brother Rudolph had many small conflicts like any brothers would

Muhammad Ali

5187 words - 21 pages Muhammad Ali Cassius Clay was just a boxer. A boxer who captured the hearts of Americans while winning the 1960’s Olympic gold. Here was a young man at the age of 18, representing the greatest nation on the planet and making his people proud. He would again gain the fascination of America with his defeat of the anti-hero of the time Sonny Liston. However, this hero famed across mainstream America would not last, all it would take was a man

Mohamed Ali

2483 words - 10 pages one gave the young boxer a chance of beating Liston. The date was fixed for February 25, 1964; during the weigh-in, the boisterous Ali declared that he would "float like a butterly, sting like a bee". [1] (http://www.jamescampion.com/ncnali.html) [edit] First Title Fight, Clay versus Liston Clay, however, had a plan. Misreading Clay's exuberance as nervousness, Liston was over-confident and unprepared for any result but a quick

Muhammad Ali

1178 words - 5 pages Throughout the history there have been many famous people who have lived in this country. Some of them were actors, politicians and even athletes. And out of them one of the them all. one of was a gifted boxer named Muhammad Ali. Ali made is first marked as an amateur, then as professional. Ali went through many hard trail in his life, and one of them will change the future. Which will alter lead him to become the greatest Muhammad Ali. Ali is

Muhammad Ali - 1419 words

1419 words - 6 pages Muhammad Ali: The Man, the Myth, and the Legend Muhammad Ali is one of the most decorated athletes in American history. For decades he dominated the boxing world going against any and every opposition that came before him. His stamina and charisma has yet to be matched by any athlete since him. The Vietnam War drove many Americans into the vicious battle. Many served faithfully but Muhammad Ali refused to serve his country in that way. His

Muhammad Ali - 714 words

714 words - 3 pages “He floats like a butterfly and stings like a bee.” Muhammad Ali is famous mostly because he is a very talented boxer, and in the eyes of some he is considered to be the best boxer ever. He is considered the best because of his amazing footwork, powerful jab and his fast flurries of punches. He is inspiring because of the way he fought through racism at a time when blacks and “coloured skins” had separate washrooms and drinking fountains than

Muhammad Ali - 992 words

992 words - 4 pages By: James Eicher E-mail: built_33_nw@yahoo.com The Greatest Muhammad Ali is one of the best, if not the best, boxers of all time. He was an influential leader not only inside the ring, but throughout the world. His overwhelming confidence captured millions, bringing the sport of boxing the publicity it has always deserved. Though many criticized his brash comments, he became a role model of children across the nation. He frequently gave

Similar Essays

Ali Paper

698 words - 3 pages This section presents a heuristics for performing the NWTD trust model. (1) Construct extended routing table. Extended routing table contains all fields like, for example, AODV routing table plus trust and time fields. (2) Each HELLO TIMER sends EHELLO message with all one-hop neighboring nodes, their trust values, and time at which it joins the network. (3) For each EHELLO message received, check if the sender is in the routing table. a. If

Muhammed Ali Essay

1594 words - 6 pages Muhammed Ali      In some people’s eyes Muhammed Ali is the greatest boxer ever. He was even classified as the greatest athlete in the 20th century by Sports Illustrated. He was the first to win the heavyweight title three times. He was a worldwide entertainer, and millions of people enjoyed watching his style. He was also very controversial because of his religious beliefs, his name change from Cassius Clay to Muhammed Ali and his refusal to

Pretend You Are Ali Essay

1400 words - 6 pages The names' Ali, or once known as "The Greatest". If you're wondering about my name, it was Cassius Marcellus Clay but later I changed it to Muhammad Ali. Many boxers change their names only theirs were meant for a nick name, mine was based on my beliefs. I went from a slave name to a Muslim one, even though not everyone agreed with me, it really wasn't their choice. I'll get into that in a moment.I was born in Louisville, Kylon on the 17th of

Muhammad Ali: The World’s Greatest Boxer

1711 words - 7 pages credited fights. So just who is this person Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.? He “Floats like a butterfly, he stings like a bee. He refused to fight in the Vietnam War… so whom would he be?” (Dawn11). Even though Ali’s boxing career started out as Cassius Marcellus Clay, he is known as the great Muhammad Ali changing his birth name after changing his religion to become a member of the Nation of Islam in the early sixties. “GG” (Myers2) was the