Cancer is among the top disease classifications in the world. Even in a society as medically and technologically evolved as the United States we still suffer the effects of cancer. According to the experts from the American Cancer Society, the Cancer Treatment Centers of America, and the National Cancer Institute incidence of cancer is declining. This decline, however significant, does not alleviate the impact cancer continues to have on patients, their families, insurance companies, and the healthcare industry. This paper will define the various types of cancer; distinguish between malignant and benign tumors; identify the main categories of cancer; and with a specific focus on carcinoma ...view middle of the document...
Cancer exists in five main categories including carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and central nervous cancers of the brain and spinal cord. The cancer type we will focus on is carcinoma. These cells start out on the skin or in the tissue lining of organs. Carcinoma, like other cancers, may metastasis to surrounding tissues and other parts of the body affecting almost any organ. Once metastasis occurs it is referred to as carcinosarcoma and can be found in numerous locations to include the renal system, mucosa, brain, and airway. (Venes, 2013, pp. 390,391) It spreads by direct extension, through the lymphatic system, or through the blood stream. The specific name that will be given to the breed of cancer is dependent on its origin. One example is basal cell carcinoma. This form of carcinoma originates in the basal cells, which are a deep layer skin cell.
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of human cancer and is primarily found on skin that has been exposed to sun and other ultraviolet light. Though it is mostly locally acting it does sometimes metastasis to other organs. Typical presentation is a small, shiny papule. The site enlarges to form a whitish border around a centrally depressed area or ulcer that may bleed. Once this stage is reached it is often referred to as a rodent ulcer. (Venes, 2013, p. 390)
Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is often thought of as skin cancer, which is mostly correct, although squamous cells are also present in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and other organs. This type of carcinoma tends to spread more than basal cell carcinoma, but rarely spreads to the lymph nodes. Presentation on the skin consists of red scaly patches, open sores, growths with a depression in the center, and warts. Sores from this cancer often form crusts and bleed.(Skin Cancer Foundation)
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer and often grows as a single tumor within a kidney. This cancer is usually found during a CT or ultrasound for something else and sometimes is only caught once it has become very large or invaded another organ.(American Cancer Society)
Ductal carcinoma is a breast cancer and is divided into ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma. DCIS is the more favorable form in which there is carcinoma in the ductal glands of the breasts, but it hasn’t metastasized. The invasive form is one that has metastasized to fat tissues and possibly traveled via the lymphatic system or blood. This cancer is usually found during a mammogram, breast self-exam, or provider’s exam. Some signs can lead to the suspicion of ductal carcinoma including thickening of the breast skin, rash or redness of the breast, swelling in one breast, new pain in one breast, dimpling around the nipple or on breast skin, nipple pain, a nipple turning inward, nipple discharge, and lumps in underarm area. (American Cancer Society)
Acinar cell carcinoma is a...