This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

All About Natural Gas Suppliers And Recipients

2075 words - 9 pages

Natural gas suppliers and recipients are usually connected through a large-scale, high pressure and integrated transmission pipeline network. These transmission systems are the most cost effective ways to transmit fluid products over long distances [1], and are usually supplied from multiple sources and use inline compression units to deliver gas to the end users. Adaptation to the varying demands of customers plays an important role, and it is the responsibility of the dispatchers in gas transmission systems to supply adequate amounts of natural gas to meet consumers’ requirements and maintain the pressure level above the minimum required values. Safe operation of transmission pipeline ...view middle of the document...

The quantity of gas contained in a given pipeline segment is defined as the line–pack [5], [6], which is a very important parameter in gas transmission systems [7], considering its use in the compensation of abrupt load changes.
As a result, state estimation techniques play a key role in several problems related to the gas industry such as dynamic data reconciliation, determining the line-pack of the pipelines, the appropriate calculation corresponding to natural gas transactions [8], leak detection, demand estimation, optimal sensor placement [9] and as an aid to control or optimum design of the system.
Line-pack and demand estimation estimates are essential in the evaluation of the current status of a network and can be helpful in reliable planning for the future.
Increasing and decreasing pipeline inventory, called line packing and drifting, respectively, is one of the key tools available for the gas dispatchers to balance the time-varying demands with supplies.
The available measurements are mostly pressure and mass flow at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline sections. In compression units, apart from pressure and mass flow, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured as compression of the gas increases its temperature.
For a gas dispatcher, it is desirable to have an accurate measurement of the customer demand flows as the basic information required in the operation of the network. However, mass flow meters are much more expensive than pressure sensors to install, and so a method capable of estimating the flow demands from pressure measurements is an economically attractive alternative.
There are several standard numerical methods that can be used to simulate the dynamic behavior of a gas transmission system such as spectral method [10]–[12], the method of characteristic [13], [14], explicit and implicit finite difference [15]–[17], the finite volume [18], [19], finite element [20], [21] and high order approaches such as third order Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method [22].
Some of the main characteristics of most common methods used in transient analysis of GTN are discussed in [16]. A literature review reveals that although many methods have been proposed for numerical simulation of dynamic behavior of GTN’s, but they mostly focus on isothermal models and transient behavior of fluid in a single pipe. Furthermore, flow reversal arising either from inverse pressure gradient or sudden valve opening or closing, is not addressed in them.
Including energy equation in the dynamic model of a GTN, introduces a difficulty in the modeling as the governing equations of the boundary points depend on the flow direction or network connectivity. The direction of flow in a specific equipment might change during flow reversals. On the other hand, opening or closing a valve might also alter the connectivity of the network, which leads to connecting or isolating different compartments of a GTN.
Here, we are motivated by discontinuities...

Find Another Essay On All About Natural Gas Suppliers and Recipients

Energy Resource: Natural Gas and Solar Energy

1574 words - 7 pages My two topics that I will be talking about are Natural Gas and Solar Energy. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource and pretty soon we are going to have to learn how to do without it. Solar energy will always be around. It’s not very major now but in a few years I’m sure it will be. Natural gas is a mixture of Hydrocarbon gases that form with a petroleum deposit. A hydrocarbon is a compound that’s mostly made up of Hydrogen and Carbon. Natural

Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants

1458 words - 6 pages fuel in the United States. According to Jaramillo et al. (2007), “natural gas accounts for twenty-two percent of all energy consumed in the United States and is used for steam and heat production in industrial processes, and residential and commercial power generation.” This means that natural gas power plants that have been built are not being utilized and are not being used to their full capacity. Natural gas has a lower content of carbon

Natural Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing in Pennsylvania

899 words - 4 pages inherently safe. It is stored in tanks that are more than ten-fold stronger than automotive gas and diesel tanks. Natural gas is lighter than air. It dissipates and leaves the scene of an accident. Natural gas’s inherent ignition range is extremely narrow, which means it is less likely to accidently ignite. So, while the Anti-Fracking Movement make baseless claims about minor details, America has truly been blessed with massive resources. America has

Th Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Effect on Oklahoma

1034 words - 4 pages preliminary drilling swaged badly, brought forth by the federal controls on wellhead prices of natural gas applied to interstate commerce in the 1950s. By 1982, oil prices hit an all time high of $37.60 per barrel. Furthermore, the number of progressive drilling rigs in Oklahoma also hit a record of 882. The total quantity produced from the soul and natural gas industry in Oklahoma reached about 40 billion dollars in 2007. Also, through the gross

Mexico And Venez Trade In The Natural Gas Industry

1112 words - 4 pages Country Assignment Mexico Overview of Current Economic, Political & Social Conditions With a population in excess of 100 million, Mexico is the 11th largest country in the world by population, and is rich in natural resources such as petroleum, metals and natural gas. Mexico's efforts to develop and modernize its economy, the 13th largest in the world in 2000, has been hindered by the nation's rugged terrain, limited farmland, rapidly

All About HIV and AIDS

2120 words - 8 pages ThinkQuest Team. “All About AIDS Discovery.” ORACLE ThinkQuest Education Foundation. 2004. Web. 1 May 2012 8. Branson, Handsfield, Lampe, Janssen, Taylor, Lyss, Clark. “Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings.” Center for Disease Control. 22 Sept. 2006. Web. 2012.

Natural Gas and Its use as a Alternative Fuel Compared to Gasoline

1416 words - 6 pages natural gas various ways such as looking at the surface rocks to Turner 2 find clues about underground formations. They also set off small explosions or drop heavy (Preston, Benjamin “I Feel Gassy” 5.8.12) weights on the surface and record the sound waves as they bounce back from the sedimentary rock layers underground. ( 2011). Scientists may also measure the gravitational pull of rock masses deep within the

The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas on The State of Oklahoma

1627 words - 7 pages as a fuel. In 2009, about twenty five percent of the energy consumed across the nation was obtained from natural gas. Natural gas is a very helpful fuel because it burns cleaner, hotter, and brighter than other fuels. Natural gas produces a lot of heat and light to homes and buildings when it burns. Unlike other fuels, natural gas does not produce smoke. Natural gas is safer and more reliable than some of the other fuels because the gas

The Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Oklahoma

1258 words - 5 pages landscape of Oklahoma, and even in the economy. The industry not only revitalizes our homeland, but as the need for this industry grows, so does the need for education about the oil and natural gas industry to our adolescents. As I mentioned earlier, Petroleum Scholarships are in high action, but it all begins in elementary school. It is imperative that the youth of our state understand and appreciate the impact of Oklahoma’s oil and natural gas

Pros and Cons of Natural Gas Drilling in the Drillers Are Coming by Mark Fischetti

844 words - 4 pages amounts of fluids through holes in the pipe causing subterranean pressures to push the fluid mixture back up. As a result the fluid picks up compounds like salts, heavy metals, and naturally radioactive materials (Fischetti, 2010). All of this “flow-back fluid”, as Fischetti calls it, is stored in holding tanks and the natural gas rises to the surface after it. Although the initial fluid used to pump the wells is 99.5 percent freshwater and sand

All About Mr. and Mrs. Bennet

706 words - 3 pages . Bennet prove throughout the novel that he is an insensitive father. He shows that by letting Lydia go out into the world with no concern of her ignoring Miss Elizabeth’s warning. When Elizabeth tell him about her engagement to Mr. Darcy, he seems to approach it with more concern. Truly, he does not want her to enter a relationship like his. He think all of his daughters are silly, except Elizabeth. Upon Mr. Bennet calling his daughters

Similar Essays

Oil And Gas Industry: Suppliers Selection

1702 words - 7 pages time at the right price and in the right place. Aforementioned, the ABC Company has the highest purchase on pipeline which is around 68% of the total purchasing from year 2012 to 2013. The company has three suppliers who supply pipeline which using for oil and gas industry. All suppliers are based in oversea such as Korea, Singapore and China. At the present, criteria that company used to select supplier is only price by regardless attention to

Natural Gas And Biofuels Essay

816 words - 4 pages conclusion: in the past years, carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen. Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992[2]. In the present days, natural gas is an indispensable fuel on a world scale when it comes to supply of energy. NG today supplies about one-half of the total energy consumed by commercial and residential customers, and around 41% of the energy

Earth And Natural Gas Essay

2332 words - 10 pages outweigh the cons. This energy source is natural gas. The main reason for the heavy debate is not the energy source but rather the mining of the energy source through the process of hydraulic fracturing. In this report the following topics will be discussed to get a better understand of natural gas and the hydraulic fracturing process. An overview of natural gas will be discussed. A detail description of hydraulic fracturing process will be provided

Hydraulic Fracturing And Natural Gas Essay

1029 words - 5 pages which is not made official which is the burning of biodegradable fuel which is like used frying oil of French fries. This ends up the smell and burning of fumes that smells like French fries! All the alternatives have their pros and cons but it all matters on what purpose and what kind of people use these sources. All these sources have their sense of danger on how they are used and produced. For example the production of natural gas is