Allergy is a widely effecting mechanism of many individuals worldwide and individuals not treated may be effected by other severe diseases. Some allergens such as dust, pollens or food intolerance are responsible for the onset of type 1 hypersensitive allergic response. These identified by the host’s immune system triggers the immune cells (mast cells/ basophils) to degranulate releasing chemicals such as histamine into the bloodstream. This initiates the symptoms such as itchiness or irritation of the eyes, noses, lungs or skin. In order to detect the particular allergen that is responsible for such symptoms various forms of skin tests can be conducted. The main consideration is the ImmunoCap Phadia as well as other forms of assays, along with their corresponding limitations.
Allergen Specific IgE
Allergen specific IgE antibodies are mostly found in the lungs, skin and mucous membrane at a controllable concentration. Inhalant allergens such as dust mites, pollen, food allergens, drugs venom and latex upon detection, triggers the immune system initiating over reaction of the immune cells producing a type 1 hypersensitive  allergic reaction. To protect the host from any harmful threats the immune system in response produces high quantity of allergen specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) from B cells .
These bind to high affinity IgE type1 receptors (FcεRI) on specific immune cells, such as mast cells or basophils. The IgE receptors here cross-link and trigger downstream reactions that cause degranulation of the cells releasing chemicals such as histamine, serotonin, proteases, bradykinin generating factor, chemotactic factors, leukotrienes, prostaglandins and thromboxanes into the bloodstream . This produces an immediate allergic response through hypersensitivity and is the cause of onset for the symptoms experienced by the effected individual, such that relating to the eyes (itchiness, swelling), nose (irritation, sneezing), throat (irratation, swelling), lungs (Respiratory eg, acute bronchospasm, rhinoconjunctivitis), skin (Cutaneous eg, acute urticaria, angioedema) and/ or gastrointestinal tract (eg, vomiting, diarrhea) and lastly heart related symptoms (tachycardia, hyptotension).
More over the individual can have a generalised suffering of anaphylactic shock. This is a life-threatening reaction that involves systemic vasodilatation causing low blood pressure therefore leading to one or more of the following; acute respiratory distress, cardiovascular failure,with rapid onset terminating with death.
Measurement of allergen-specific IgE
Measuring allergen specific IgE led to the understanding of allergy produced hypersensitivity. Following this various methods have been used to diagnose specific allergies following patients reporting various symptoms. In addition measurements of allergen specific IgE was also conducted to see the increase or decrease of allergen sensitisation of individuals during various stages of their...