Osteoarthritis has been studied in-depth throughout history and all over the world. There are multiple, possible, solutions for alleviating pain caused by depleting cartilage, although a cure has not been found. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease and is idiopathic.
The first theme consists of the findings from a study conducted by Felson and Nevitt, they discovered the effects of estrogen on osteoarthritis. This study emphasizes how osteoarthritis is more commonly found in females then it is in males, since menopause causes a considerable loss of estrogen. They proved this by comparing animal studies to humans. The animal studies that were conducted discovered when ovarectomized animals are placed on estrogen replacement therapy it hinders the disease from progressing (Felson & Nevitt, 1998). Through animal studies, estrogen replacement therapy has become an extraordinary medical finding and is helpful to those individuals who primarily lose a significant amount of estrogen during menopause.
Another theme is age, a factor when dealing with osteoarthritis which, is predominately found in patients over the age of sixty-five (Straub,Wolff, Fassold, Hofbauer, Chover-Gonzalez, Richards, & Jessop, 2008). However, Felson and Nevitt (1998) found that women have a higher chance of being diagnosed with osteoarthritis due to the decrease of estrogen after menopause. Menopause usually occurs in the female population around the age of fifty and can last months or even years depending on the individual. During this time period estrogen decreases, which is a vital hormone for bone growth, this escalates the onset of osteoarthritis.
The final theme is how NSAIDs, a drug that reduces pain, are currently used for osteoarthritis to relieve chronic pain. Studies have shown that elderly patients who are prescribed NSAIDs for osteoarthritis have adverse effects. They may cause stroke, myocardial infarctions, or acute renal failure (Gallagher, Leighton-Scott, & van Staa, 2009). Elderly patients are prescribed numerous amounts of medications and those individuals who are diagnosed with osteoarthritis are usually given NSAIDs. They are the most common drug given to these patients to alleviate any pain they might be experiencing. Although, this prescription may hinder the debilitating symptoms of osteoarthritis it does harm the individual with its side effects.
Since new drugs are continually being discovered and produced, a “need for a new generation of anti-inflammatory drugs” should be studied (Jessop, Fassold, Wolff, Hofbauer, Chover-Gonzalez, Richards, & Straub, 2010). Unfortunately, drug therapy that has been effective for the elderly population has adverse side effects, and can lead to addiction especially opioids (Gordon, Callaghan, & Spink, 2010). Osteoarthritis is a complex degenerative disease that has been studied for decades throughout the nation, and new drugs are being manufactured and tested on animals to find a non-addictive cure to...