This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Alternatives Of Effective Drug Delivery To The Brain

3275 words - 14 pages

The development of drug carrier and delivery systems to increase delivery to the brain has been and continues to be the subject of much research efforts. Most approaches utilized to enhance delivery of the drug to the brain focused on circumventing one major obstacle: the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The blood-brain barrier is primarily composed of brain capillary endothelial cells and is a highly selective barrier for both endogenous and exogenous substances (Lai et al., 2013). In fact, about 98% of small molecule drugs and almost 100% of macromolecules cannot pass the blood-brain barrier (Orive et al., 2009). Despite this, certain endogenous nutrients such as transferrin and insulin are able to cross the blood-brain barrier due to the presence of transferrin receptors (TfR) and insulin receptors (IR) at the barrier, respectively (Gaillard et al., 2012). Liposomes have conventionally been used to improve drug delivery due to its ability to encapsulate drug molecules either into its aqueous inner core or the lipid bilayer. Another method of enhancing drug delivery is through the targeting approach, in which the drug entity is modified with a peptide, protein, or antibody that would enable targeting to a cell surface receptor that is expressed at the blood-brain barrier (Orive et al., 2009). Thus, a targeting approach involving the receptors expressed at the blood-brain barrier and liposomes could potentially increase the accessibility of drug across the barrier and into the brain parenchyma. The use of the anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (mAb) OX26-conjugated immunoliposomes and the transferrin-conjugated liposomes have been extensively studied and evaluated as potential delivery systems to enhance drug accessibility to the brain.
As previously stated, the highly selective nature of the blood-brain barrier allows for neuro-protection from xenobiotics and the regulation of homeostasis (Lai et al., 2013). The blood-brain barrier has three layers of protection: physical barrier, transport barrier, and metabolic barrier (Gaillard et al., 2012). The physical barrier is due to the presence of tight junctions amongst the capillary endothelial cells which may hamper paracellular transport of substances across the blood-brain barrier (Lai et al., 2013). The transport barrier consists of mechanisms of transport that regulate the influx or efflux trafficking of various substances (Gaillard et al., 2012). Finally, the metabolic barrier is poised with metabolizing enzymes located in the CNS endothelial cells that may prevent transcellular transport (Lai et al., 2013). Despite the restrictive nature of the blood-brain barrier, a variety of molecules and nutrients have the ability to be transported into the brain through a variety of transport mechanisms. These mechanisms include transcellular diffusion, paracellular diffusion, carrier-mediated transport, receptor-mediated transcytosis, cell-mediated transcytosis, efflux pumps and...

Find Another Essay On Alternatives of Effective Drug Delivery to the Brain

Financial Analysis of Alternatives to Different Companies

4433 words - 18 pages effective cost management and innovative new programs, and for consumers through expanded choice, unparalleled access, and more personalized services. The merger is expected to drive substantial value for shareholders through anticipated benefits. Those benefits include competitive strength, ability to achieve significant synergies and growth in earnings.This merger does not seem to be of any harm to the employees. The company has not mentioned

Development of an Easy, Safe and Effective Method to Identify Drug Incompatibilities

2579 words - 10 pages DEVELOPMENT OF AN EASY, SAFE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IDENTIFY DRUG INCOMPATIBILITIES INTRODUCTION Drug therapy is a complex process with innumerable parameters modulating its success and safety. The most vulnerable patients at risk of increased drug errors are those who require intensive care treatment. In such patients, multiple co-morbidity and multiorgan failure are frequent, with increasing mortality rate, oral drug treatment is often

Assess The Potential Of Three Sources Of Renewable Energy As Alternatives To Using Fossil Fuels

1793 words - 7 pages supported by an earlier study (Volker, 2005) which found that wind energy is one of the most important alternatives to put a stop to global warming. Therefore, the use of wind power can furnish a large amount of energy without polluting the environment. Whilst the benefits of switching to wind power are relatively straightforward to assess, the cost of it is more complex and controversial. In order to generate a mass of energy, larger areas with a

Interpretation Alternatives of Shakespeare's The Tempest

1278 words - 5 pages Interpretation Alternatives of The Tempest      A production of The Tempest should emphasize the idealized methods in which Prospero uses magic to solve the problem of revenge which is so prevalent throughout his tragedies, perhaps the production might be a direct allegory for the magic of the theatre itself.   In this conception of the play, the scattering and bringing together of the characters in the script is significant in that

The Contribution of Split-Brain Studies to Our Understanding of Brain Functioning

1349 words - 5 pages concept referred to as lateralization of function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland & Vliek 2009). For example, the left hemisphere is responsible for speech production whilst the right hemisphere deals with the comprehension of emotional responses. It is also the case that the right hemisphere governs the left side of the body and the left hemisphere governs the right side of the body with the brain displaying contralateral control (in

This was a report I had to do about the brain and parts of the brain

1023 words - 4 pages Table of ContentsParts of the Brain 3How the Brain Works 4Vocabulary 5Optical Illusions 7Jingle 8Bibliography 9Parts of the BrainHow the Brain WorksDoes chocolates really satisfy women? That has been a widely asked question from just about every man. The answer is, it actually does. Chocolate causes the brain to produce natural opioids, which are found in opium, producing a feeling of well being. This chemical dulls pain. Chocolate produces a

Understandin How Mammalian Pulmonary and Circulatory Systems Increase The Delivery of Oxygen to Cells

2514 words - 10 pages that is inhaled and let out with each breath. When this volume is taken during a maximal inhalation and exhalation is the vital capacity (Reece et al., 2011). The purpose of this lab was to understand how mammalian pulmonary and circulatory systems increase the delivery of oxygen to cells during exercise. The systems were examined by measuring pulse, vital capacity, ventilation rate, and the blood pressure at rest and immediately following short

An Essay to Improve the Delivery of Service Quality for a Technical Services Provider

1981 words - 8 pages Introduction: An industrial machine agent has two department, the sales department which promote and sell machines and the after sales service department which provide the after sales services and technical support to all machines sold by the sales department. The after sales services department is the backbone of the sales department, since the professional technical support gives the potential to the sales department to sell more machines

Process of the Brain

665 words - 3 pages It’s amazing how the brain works. The brain has cells in it called neurons. Every neuron has an axon with tails called terminals. The axon terminals send electrochemical messages to other neurons across tiny spaces called synapses. Learning creates a synaptic connection with all the other neurons. The connection of these neurons makes a neural network, which is composed of about ten thousand neurons. The networks that are in a person’s brain

Anatomy of the Brain

782 words - 3 pages Vincent TungPsychology 101Professor OchoaJune 18, 2014Essay #2 LearningLearning is what keeps any living entity today "alive." This phenomenon keeps animals and more specifically humans today alive. It helps us evolve and adapt with the constant change the world endures. To start with, classical conditioning is an essential part of learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a method of learning that involves creating a relationship or

Prison and the Alternatives: Is Incarceration the Answer to Crime?

2143 words - 9 pages Prison and the Alternatives: Is Incarceration the Answer to Crime?How well do our prisons reform prisoners? What are the alternatives to prison? What is the best, most cost-effective way of protecting the public? These are some of the questions raised by individuals who are legitimately concerned not only with where their tax dollars are going, but also with what is being done to break the cycle of crime within their representative communities

Similar Essays

Alternatives To The Banking Concept Of Education

1932 words - 8 pages , instead of passing down information, show me how to find it. I agree that a partnership between students and teachers needs to be made because I have found knowledge and progress comes forth when communication is not from a professional standpoint, but from a friendly one.Though I concede that the banking approach is not the most effective means of education, I still insist that it does have many success stories and is a valuable tool for some

Regional Delivery Of Drug Via Transdermal Administration

674 words - 3 pages Regional delivery of drug via transdermal administration could be a better treatment option as this route is expected to be associated with lesser side effects due to targeting of drug to the specific site. Moreover, in case of any untoward effect due to the drug, the therapy can be terminated immediately, simply by removing the formulation/patch at any point of time. In addition, transdermal route also provides sustained release of drug and in

Selfemulsifying Drug Delivery System Of Docetaxel

724 words - 3 pages solution at the site of action, it will not be a suitable candidate for development. In order to overcome these hurdles and improve the localization of the drug molecule at the site of action, effective drug delivery strategies should be used. Hence lipid based systems were chosen because they overcomes the barriers and improves their oral bioavailability by many mechanisms, of which affecting intestinal permeability , enhanced solubilization

Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Of Docetaxal

642 words - 3 pages HPLC analysis A validated reverse-phase isocratic Shimadzu HPLC system (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) furnished with LC-10 AT solvent delivery unit, SPD-10 AVP UV/Vis detector (sensitivity of 0.005 absorbance units full scale, AUFS) was used to analyze DTX concentration in the samples. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and double distilled water in a volume ratio of 75:25 and was pumped through the Phenomenex® Luna C18 column (5 µm, 4.6